We felt that {detri} just didn't work as a culturally-independent date system. The use of {pi'e} or {joi} as date mechanisms was insufficient and having the date components built into the place structure seems far more elegant. (Cf. {masti}, {djedi}, {nanca}, {nu}, {fasnu}, {purci}, {balvi}, {jeftu}) datru experimental gismu x_1 (event) is dated/pertaining to day/occurring on day x_2 of month x_3 of year x_4 in calendar x_5 Moved to {datro} due to conflict with {tatru}.

We felt that {detri} just didn't work as a culturally-independent date system. The use of {pi'e} or {joi} as date mechanisms was insufficient and having the date components built into the place structure seems far more elegant. (Cf. {masti}, {djedi}, {nanca}, {nu}, {fasnu}, {purci}, {balvi}, {jeftu}) decti gismu -dec- x_1 is a tenth [1/10; 10^{-1}] of x_2 in dimension/aspect x_3 (default is units). (cf. grake, mitre, snidu, stero, delno, molro, kelvo, xampo, gradu. litce, merli, centi, dekto, femti, gigdo, gocti, gotro, kilto, megdo, mikri, milti, nanvi, petso, picti, terto, xatsi, xecto, xexso, zepti, zetro) degji gismu -deg- x_1 is a/the finger/digit/toe [body-part] on limb/body site x_2 of body x_3; [metaphor: peninsula]. Finger (= {xandegji}), toe (= {jmadegji}). See also {nazbi}, {tamji}, {tance}, {xance}., dejni gismu -dej- x_1 owes x_2 in debt/obligation to creditor x_3 in return for x_4 [service, loan]; x_1 is a debtor. See also {jbera}, {janta}, {zivle}. dekpu gismu x_1 is x_2 (default 1) local volume unit(s) [non-metric; e.g. bushel], standard x_3, x_4 subunits. Gallon (= {likydekpu}), quart (= {likseldekpu}), barrel (wet = likybradekpu, dry = sudbradekpu), bushel (= {sudydekpu}), peck (= {sudyseldekpu}), cupful (= {kabrydekpu}), tablespoon (= {mucydekpu}); teaspoon (= {mucyxeldekpu}); (all of these lujvo may need gic- to distinguish the English measurement system in contrasting with some local system; the English system is otherwise presumed to be the default non-metric system). (additional subunit places may be added as x_5, x_6, ...); See also {canlu}, {litce}, {rupnu}, {fepni}, {gutci}, {minli}, {merli}, {bunda}, {kramu}. dekto gismu -dek- x_1 is ten [10; 10^1] of x_2 in dimension/aspect x_3 (default is units). See also {grake}, {mitre}, {snidu}, {stero}, {delno}, {molro}, {kelvo}, {xampo}, {gradu}, {litce}, {merli}, {centi}, {decti}, {femti}, {gigdo}, {gocti}, {gotro}, {kilto}, {megdo}, {mikri}, {milti}, {nanvi}, {petso}, {picti}, {terto}, {xatsi}, {xecto}, {xexso}, {zepti}, {zetro} delno gismu -del- -de'o- x_1 is x_2 candela [metric unit] in luminosity (default is 1) by standard x_3. See also {centi}, {decti}, {dekto}, {femti}, {gigdo}, {gocti}, {gotro}, {kilto}, {megdo}, {mikri}, {milti}, {nanvi}, {petso}, {picti}, {terto}, {xatsi}, {xecto}, {xexso}, {zepti}, {zetro}. dembi gismu -deb- x_1 is a bean/pea/leguminous seed from plant [legume] x_2. See also {grute}, {sobde}, {tsiju}. denci gismu -den- -de'i- x_1 is a/the tooth [body-part] of x_2; (adjective:) x_1 is dental. (for metaphor: see {dakfu}, {pagre}, {jgalu}); See also {moklu}, {dakfu}, {pagre}, {jgalu}, {batci}, {bongu}. denmi gismu -dem- x_1 is dense/concentrated/packed/intense in property x_2 (ka) at location/locus x_3. See also {carmi}, {midju}, {viknu}. denpa gismu -dep- -de'a- x_1 awaits/waits/pauses for/until x_2 at state x_3 before starting/continuing x_4 (activity/process). (x_2 is an event, usually a point event); also: resuming x_4. See also {dicra}, {fanmo}, {sisti}, {fliba}, {pandi}. dertu gismu -der- -de'u- x_1 is a quantity of/contains/is made of dirt/soil/earth/ground from source x_2 of composition x_3. Also: x_1 is earthen; x_3: composition including x_3, which need not be exhaustive of composition. See also {kliti}, {terdi}, {loldi}. derxi gismu -dre- x_1 is a heap/pile/stack/mound/hill of materials x_2 at location x_3. See also {cmana}. desku gismu -des- x_1 shakes/quakes/trembles/quivers/shudders/wobbles/vibrates from force x_2. Also (expressible either with desku or slilu): side to side, to and fro, back and forth, reciprocal motion. See also {slilu}, {janbe}. detri gismu -det- x_1 is the date [day,{week},{month},year] of event/state x_2, at location x_3, by calendar x_4. (time units in x_1 are specified as numbers separated by pi'e or are unit values massified with joi); See also cmavo list {de'i}, {djedi}, {jeftu}, {masti}, {nanca}, {tcika}. dicma experimental gismu x1 pertains/is related to/reflects (the) electromagnetic interaction [E&M fundamental interaction] in manner/with properties/in state/with realization x2, coupling to x3 in manner/with strength x4 See also: {jikfi},{tsaba}, {vubla}, {grava}, {xigzo}, {dikca}, {maksi}. dicra gismu -dir- x_1 (event) interrupts/stops/halts/[disrupts] x_2 (object/event/process) due to quality x_3. Also disturbs (one sense). See also {zunti}, {fanza}, {raktu}, {denpa}. didni experimental gismu x_1 deduces/reasons by deduction/establishes by deduction that x_2 is true about x_3 from general rule x_4 See {nibji'i}, {nusna}, {lanli}, {jdice}, {logji}, {nibli} digno experimental gismu x_1 is aligned diagonally along/between nonadjacent vertices x_2 as in polytope x_3; x_1 is a diagonal line segment/linear manifold of lower dimension as viewed in frame of reference x_3; x_1 is crooked (one sense), skew (one sense, see notes), off-kilter (one sense), away from center/off-center, non-orthogonal/not perpendicular nor parallel, at an angle, perhaps non-vertical and non-horizontal, diagonal to x_2 in figure/coordinate system x_3. Not for use in: entries of tensors/matrices (confer: {daigno}), certain geometric meanings (such as with Cartesian products), etc. Only for purely 'visual' geometric objects/figures/frames. The polytope in question need not actually be 'drawn'; an oriented frame of reference naturally 'projects' a polytopic sense onto all objects. x1 can be any linear manifold of lower dimension than the space in which it is embedded (defined by x3). The skewness is not relative to another linear manifold in some higher-dimensional space (the usual definition of "skew" in geometry) - it is simply a skewness (in a layperson sense) relative to points in a figure or axis in a coordinate system. Proposed by Gleki. dikca gismu -dic- x_1 is electricity [electric charge or current] in/on x_2 of polarity/quantity x_3 (def. negative). (x_3, a quantifier, can be expressed as a simple polarity using the numerals for positive and negative ma'u and ni'u); (explicitly) negative (= {dutydikca}), positive (= {mardikca}); current (= {selmuvdikca}, {muvdikca}; again default negative/electron current), charge (= {klodikca}, {stadikca}). See also {lindi}, {xampo}, {flecu}, {maksi}, {tcana}. diklo gismu -klo- x_1 is local to x_2; x_1 is confined to locus x_2 within range x_3; x_1 is regional Indicates a specific location/value within a range; e.g. a hits b. What is the locality on b that a hits? Thus x_1 is associated with a specific narrow region/interval x_2 of wider space/range x_3. See also cmavo list {di'o}, {jibni}, {zvati}, {cpana}, {nenri}, {lamji}, {stuzi}, {tcila}. dikni gismu -dik- x_1 is regular/cyclical/periodic in property (ka)/activity x_2 with period/interval x_3. Also uniform; resonant (= {dikslicai}). See also {slilu}, {rilti}, {xutla}, {manfo}, {boxna}. dilcu gismu x_1 is a quotient of 'x_2/x_3' [dividend x_2 divided by divisor x_3], leaving remainder x_4. See also {frinu}, {fendi}, {katna}, {parbi}, {mekso}. dilma experimental gismu x_1 belongs to conjugacy class x_2 in structure x_3 under conditions x_4 dilnu gismu -dil- x_1 is a cloud/mass of clouds of material x_2 in air mass x_3 at floor/base elevation x_4. See also {carvi}, {tcima}. dimna gismu -dim- x_1 is a fate/destiny of x_2; [doom, curse are mabla-forms]; x_2 is fated/predestined/doomed to x_1. Fated/destined/doomed (= {seldimna}). See also {dapma}. dindi experimental gismu x_1 is the x_2th day of week number x_3 of year x_4, under calendar/system x_5 dinju gismu -dij- -di'u- x_1 is a building/edifice for purpose x_2. See also {ginka}, {zdani}, {zarci}. dinko gismu -di'o- x_1 is a nail/tack [pointed driven/frictional fastener] of type/size x_2 (ka), made of material x_3. (x_2 also can be ni abstraction); See also {pijne}, {lasna}. dinso experimental gismu x_1 is a dinosaur [very general: any ancient quasi-reptilian vertebrate] of type x_2 living in era x_3. A gismu version of {dinsauru}; contrast with {reksa}. The use of this word is not strictly only relevant to members of clade Dinosauria, although it does include them (and, specifically, birds); its referent might include pterosaurs, icthyosaurs, plesiosaurs, mosasaurs, dimetrodons, avemetatarsaliads, and perhaps even synapsids (in other words, any ancient quasi-reptilian vertebrate). As such, it is a qualitative word that bears no particular or strong attention or respect to genealogy or academic classification of these animals. Basically, any ancient animal the name of which ends in "-saur" can be so-described. Proposed short rafsi: -dis-. See also: {rexsa}, {ketslau}, {ikfiio}, {disrmuzo}, {plesiio}. dirba gismu -dib- x_1 is dear/precious/darling to x_2; x_1 is emotionally valued by x_2. x_1 may be a specific object, a commodity (mass), an event, or a property; pedantically, for objects/commodities, this is sumti-raising from ownership of the object/commodity (= {posydirba} for unambiguous semantics). See also {tcika}, {kargu}, {vamji}, {vajni}, {pleji}, {jadni}, {jemna}. dirce gismu -di'e- x_1 radiates/emits x_2 under conditions x_3. See also {gusni}. dirgo gismu -dig- x_1 is a drop [small, cohesive shape] of material [liquid/vapor] x_2 in surrounding material x_3. See also {daplu}, {bidju}. disko experimental gismu x_1 is a disc {cukla} - 'round' (a more generic word) ditcu experimental gismu x_1 is the time-duration/interval/period/[elapsed time] of event x_2. short rafsi is -dit-. Cf. {cedra}, {ranji}, {tcika}, {renvi}, {temci}, {canlu}, {kuspe}, {krafamtei} divzi experimental gismu x_1 (living cell) divides itself into x_2 (full set; the same type as x_1) The basic feature of live matter. x2 is the full set of cells born due to the division of x_1. See {fukpi} dizlo gismu -diz- -dzi- x_1 is low/down/downward in frame of reference x_2 as compared with baseline/standard height x_3. Also lower; x_3 is generally some defined distance above a zero point/baseline, or is that baseline itself. See also {cnita}, {galtu}, {gapru}, {farna}, {loldi}. djacu gismu -jac- -jau- x_1 is made of/contains/is a quantity/expanse of water; (adjective:) x_1 is aqueous/[aquatic]. Aquatic (= {jaupli}). See also {lalxu}, {rirxe}, {xamsi}, {limna}, {litki}, {lumci}, {bumru}, {jinto}. djedi gismu -dje- -dei- x_1 is x_2 full days in duration (default is 1 day) by standard x_3; (adjective:) x_1 is diurnal. Today (= {cabdei}); tomorrow (= {bavlamdei}); yesterday (= {prulamdei}). See also {donri}, {detri}, {jeftu}, {masti}, {nanca}, {nicte}, {tcika}. djica gismu -dji- x_1 desires/wants/wishes x_2 (event/state) for purpose x_3. If desire is for an object, this is sumti-raising; use tu'a in x_2 (or use lujvo = {po'edji}). See also {taske}, {xagji}, {mukti}, {nitcu}, {nelci}, {pacna}, {prami}, {rigni}, {trina}, {xebni}, {xlura}. djine gismu -jin- x_1 is a ring/annulus/torus/circle [shape/form] of material x_2, inside diam. x_3, outside diam. x_4. Also ellipse, oval (= {jincla}); (usage has been for near-circles, such as tight spirals, even if not closed loops). Also band, belt, encircle (= {jinsru}). See also {clupa}, {cukla}, {dasri}, {karli}, {sovda}, {sruri}, {konju}. djuno gismu -jun- -ju'o- x_1 knows fact(s) x_2 (du'u) about subject x_3 by epistemology x_4. Words usable for epistemology typically have a du'u place; know how to - implying knowledge of method but not necessarily having the ability to practice (= {tadjyju'o}). 'know/familiar with' - {se} {slabu}, {na'e} {cnino}, {na'e} {fange}. See also {du'o}, {krici}, {jinvi}, {cilre}, {certu}, {facki}, {jijnu}, {jimpe}, {senpi}, {smadi}, {kakne}, {birti}, {mipri}, {morji}, {saske}, {viska}. donri gismu -dor- -do'i- x_1 is the daytime of day x_2 at location x_3; (adjective:) x_1 is diurnal (vs. nocturnal). See also {nicte}, {djedi}, {tcika}. dotco gismu -dot- -do'o- x_1 reflects German/Germanic culture/nationality/language in aspect x_2. See also {ropno}. draci gismu x_1 is a drama/play about x_2 [plot/theme/subject] by dramatist x_3 for audience x_4 with actors x_5. x_2 may also be a convention. See also {finti}, {cukta}, {lisri}, {cfika}. drani gismu -dra- x_1 is correct/proper/right/perfect in property/aspect x_2 (ka) in situation x_3 by standard x_4. See also {srera}, {mapti}. drata gismu -dat- x_1 isn't the-same-thing-as/is different-from/other-than x_2 by standard x_3; x_1 is something else. See also {mintu}, {frica}. drudi gismu -rud- -dru- x_1 is a roof/top/ceiling/lid of x_2. (cf. bitmu, stedu, galtu, gapru, loldi, marbi, gacri, mapku; a drudi is (designed to be) over/above something and shelters it from other things above the drudi, mapku) dugri gismu -dug- x_1 is the logarithm of x_2 with base x_3. See also {tenfa}, {de'o}. dukse gismu -dus- -du'e- x_1 is an excess of/too much of x_2 by standard x_3. Cloying (= {maldu'e}, {tolpu'adu'e}). See also {bancu}, {banzu}, {ricfu}, {zmadu}. dukti gismu -dut- x_1 is polar opposite from/contrary to x_2 in property/on scale x_3 (property/si'o). See also {ranxi}, {ragve}, {fatne}. dunda gismu -dud- -du'a- x_1 [donor] gives/donates gift/present x_2 to recipient/beneficiary x_3 [without payment/exchange]. Also grants; x_3 is a receiver (= {terdu'a} for reordered places); the Lojban doesn't distinguish between or imply possession transfer or sharing; x_2 may be a specific object, a commodity (mass), an event, or a property; pedantically, for objects/commodities, this is sumti-raising from ownership of the object/commodity (= {posydu'a}, {posyseldu'a} for unambiguous semantics). See also {benji}, {muvdu}, {canja}, {pleji}, {vecnu}, {friti}, {sfasa}, {dapma}, {cnemu}, {prali}. dunja gismu -duj- x_1 freezes/jells/solidifies at temperature x_2 and pressure x_3. See also {febvi}, {lunsa}, {runme}, {sligu}. dunku gismu -duk- -du'u- x_1 is anguished/distressed/emotionally wrought/stressed by x_2. See also {fengu}, {surla}. dunli gismu -dun- -du'i- x_1 is equal/congruent to/as much as x_2 in property/dimension/quantity x_3. Same in quantity/quality (not necessarily in identity); 'analogy' may be expressed as the equivalence of two properties of similarity (ka x_1 simsa x_2) and (ka x_3 simsa x_4). See also {du'i}, {satci}, {frica}, {simsa}, {mintu}. dunra gismu -dur- x_1 is winter/wintertime [cold season] of year x_2 at location x_3. See also {citsi}, {crisa}, {critu}, {vensa}. dutso experimental gismu x_1 is clockwise/right-turn-direction of[/to] x_2 along/following track x_3 [path] in frame of reference x_4 (where the axis is within the region defined by the track as the boundary, as viewed from and defined by view(er) x_4; see notes); x_1 is locally to the right of x_2, according to x_4, constrained along x_3; x_1 is along a right turn from x_2 along path x_3, as viewed in frame x_4. Angular/curling direction: clockwise. he orientation of the path determines x4 but does not factor into consideration for x3. Further glosses: clockwise, locally rightward, right-turning (with no bulk translation) in a way that would be characterized as "negative" by the right-hand rule (aligned with and in the direction of a basis vector, at least for a given component). x1 is left-handedly/clockwise(ly) oriented relative to x2 on/along x3 in frame of reference x4. x1 is left-handed (one sense) from x2 [more accurately: moving from x2 to x1 requires a(n imaginary) motion that is left-handed about/along x3 as seen in frame/orientation/perspective x4]. x1 is to the path-following right of x2 (where the path is connected; as such, x1 is also be to the path-following left of x2, although there is an implication that the former is the smaller (or equal-length) path). See also: {zucna}, {du'ei} (left-handed vectorial cross product), {du'oi} (modal). Proposed short rafsi: -tso-. dzena gismu -dze- x_1 is an elder/ancestor of x_2 by bond/tie/degree x_3; x_1's generation precedes x_2's parents. See also {patfu}, {rirni}, {tamne}. dzipo gismu -zip- -zi'o- x_1 reflects Antarctican culture/nationality/geography in aspect x_2. See also {ketco}, {friko}, {sralo}, {terdi}. facki gismu -fak- -fa'i- x_1 discovers/finds out x_2 (du'u) about subject/object x_3; x_1 finds (fi) x_3 (object). See also {cirko}, {djuno}, {jijnu}, {smadi}, {sisku}. fadni gismu -fad- x_1 [member] is ordinary/common/typical/usual in property x_2 (ka) among members of x_3 (set). Also: x_2 is a normal/common/ordinary/typical property among set x_3 (= selterfadni for reordered places); also regular, (mabla forms:) banal, trite, vulgar; (x_3 is complete set). See also {cafne}, {rirci}, {kampu}, {lakne}, {tcaci}, {cnano}. fagri gismu -fag- x_1 is a fire/flame in fuel x_2 burning-in/reacting-with oxidizer x_3 (default air/oxygen). See also {jelca}, {sacki}. falnu gismu -fan- x_1 is a sail for gathering propelling material x_2 on vehicle/motor x_3. Waterwheel (= {jacfanxi'u}). See also {bloti}. famti gismu x_1 is an aunt/uncle of x_2 by bond/tie x_3; x_1 is an associated member of x_2's parent's generation. Aunt (={fetfamti}), uncle (={nakfamti}). See also {bruna}, {mamta}, {mensi}, {patfu}, {rirni}, {tamne}. fancu gismu x_1 is a function/single-valued mapping from domain x_2 to range x_3 defined by expression/rule x_4. See also {mekso}, {bridi}. fange gismu x_1 is foreign/alien/[exotic]/unfamiliar to x_2 in property x_3 (ka). For the sense of alien (not from Earth), see {kesfange}. See also {cizra}, {jbena}, {ckini}. fanmo gismu -fam- -fa'o- x_1 is an end/finish/termination of thing/process x_2; [not necessarily implying completeness]. x_1 is final/last/at the last; x_1 is a terminal/terminus of x_2; x_1 is the final/terminated state of terminated process x_2; x_2 terminates/ceases/stops/halts at x_1 (= {selfa'o} for reordered places). See also {krasi}, {cfari}, {mulno}, {sisti}, {denpa}, {jipno}, {kojna}, {traji}, {krasi}. fanri gismu x_1 is a factory/foundry/industrial plant/mill producing x_2 from materials x_3. See also {molki}, {gundi}. fanta gismu x_1 prevents/keeps/stops/restrains/constrains event x_2 from occurring. See also {pinfu}, {bandu}, {zunti}, {rinju}, {jimte}, {bapli}, {rivbi}. fanva gismu x_1 translates text/utterance x_2 to language x_3 from language x_4 with translation result x_5. See also {cusku}, {bangu}. {traduki} is similar but has a different place structure. fanza gismu -faz- x_1 (event) annoys/irritates/bothers/distracts x_2. Also: is disruptive to. See also {fengu}, {raktu}, {dicra}, {tunta}, {zunti}, {jicla}. fapro gismu -fap- -pro- x_1 opposes/balances/contends against opponent(s) x_2 (person/force ind./mass) about x_3 (abstract). Also resists. See also {bandu}, {bradi}, {darlu}, {damba}, {jivna}, {lanxe}, {rivbi}, {sarji}, {xarnu}. farka experimental gismu x_1 is an orientation of/on (base) object x_2 with features/characteristics/definition x_3; x_2 is an unoriented version of an object endowed with/given orientation/direction/face x_1. Preferred to {fardu} because of gismu similarity-conflict and the fact that {ckaji} makes more etymological sense than {dunda} does. The "giving" is nonagentive. See also: {xansa}; equivalent zi'evla version: {farnadu}. farlu gismu -fal- -fa'u- x_1 falls/drops to x_2 from x_3 in gravity well/frame of reference x_4. Note: things can fall in spin, thrust, or tide as well as gravity; (agentive "drop" = one of two lujvo: {falcru} and {falri'a}). See also {lafti}, {cpare}, {klama}, {sfubu}. farna gismu -far- -fa'a- x_1 is the direction of x_2 (object/event) from origin/in frame of reference x_3. x_2 is towards x_1 from x_3 (= {selfa'a} for reordered places). See also {zunle}, {pritu}, {galtu}, {gapru}, {cnita}, {dizlo}, {berti}, {snanu}, {stuna}, {stici}, {purci}, {balvi}, {lidne}. farvi gismu -fav- x_1 develops/evolves towards/into x_2 from x_3 through stages x_4. See also {pruce}, {banro}, {makcu}, {ciste}, {cupra}, {ferti}. fasnu gismu -fau- x_1 (event) is an event that happens/occurs/takes place; x_1 is an incident/happening/occurrence. See also {fau}, {krefu}, {lifri}, {fatci}, {rapli}, {banli}; if specifically agentive: {gasnu}, {zukte} fatci gismu -fac- x_1 (du'u) is a fact/reality/truth/actuality, in the absolute. See also {datni}, {jitfa}, {sucta}, {xanri}, {jetnu}, {fasnu}, {zasti}, {cfika}, {saske}. fatne gismu -fat- -fa'e- x_1 [sequence] is in reverse order from x_2 [sequence]; x_1 (object) is inverted from x_2 (object). Also opposite (one sense). See also {fa'e}, {dukti}. fatri gismu -fai- x_1 is distributed/allotted/allocated/shared among x_2 with shares/portions x_3; (x_2/x_3 fa'u). Also spread, shared out, apportioned; agentive distribution (= {fairgau}, {fairzu'e}). See also {fa'u}, {fendi}, {preja}, {katna}, {tcana}. febvi gismu -feb- x_1 boils/evaporates at temperature x_2 and pressure x_3. Roil (= {febjicla}). See also {dunja}, {lunsa}, {runme}. fegli experimental gismu x_1 is ugly to x_2 in aspect x_3 See {melbi}. femti gismu -fem- x_1 is 10^{-15} of x_2 in dimension/aspect x_3 (default is units). See also {grake}, {mitre}, {snidu}, {stero}, {delno}, {molro}, {kelvo}, {xampo}, {gradu}, {litce}, {merli}, {centi}, {decti}, {dekto}, {gigdo}, {gocti}, {gotro}, {kilto}, {megdo}, {mikri}, {milti}, {nanvi}, {petso}, {picti}, {terto}, {xatsi}, {xecto}, {xexso}, {zepti}, {zetro} fendi gismu -fed- x_1 (agent) divides/partitions/separates x_2 into sections/parts/ind. x_3 by method/partition x_4. Also segments. See also {sepli}, {bitmu}, {fatri}, {dilcu}, {katna}, {frinu}. fengu gismu -feg- -fe'u- x_1 is angry/mad at x_2 for x_3 (action/state/property). See also {fanza}, {dunku}. fenki gismu -fek- x_1 (action/event) is crazy/insane/mad/frantic/in a frenzy (one sense) by standard x_2. See also {bebna}, {racli}, {xajmi}. fenra gismu -fer- -fe'a- x_1 is a crack/fissure/pass/cleft/ravine/chasm/[defect/flaw] [shape/form] in x_2. See also {kevna}, {cfila}, {jinto}. fenso gismu -fen- -fe'o- x_1 sews/stitches/sutures materials x_2 (ind./set) together with tool(s) x_3, using filament x_4. (x_2 if a set must be a complete specification); See also {cilta}, {jivbu}, {jorne}, {nivji}, {pijne}, {lasna}. fepni gismu -fep- -fei- x_1 is measured in kopeck/cent money-subunits as x_2 [quantity], in monetary system x_3. Also pfennig, paisa, sen, fen, dinar, etc.; x_1 is generally a price/cost/value. (additional secondary, tertiary, etc. subunit places may be added as x_4, x_5, x_6, ...); See also {sicni}, {jdini}, {jdima}, {vecnu}, {rupnu}, {dekpu}, {gutci}, {minli}, {merli}, {bunda}, {kramu}. fepri gismu x_1 is a/the lung [body-part] of x_2; [metaphor: breathing/respiratory apparatus/bellows]. Also (adjective:) x_1 is pulmonary. See also {pambe}, {vasxu}. ferti gismu -fre- x_1 is fertile/conducive for supporting the growth/development of x_2; x_1 is fruitful/prolific. Also fecund (note that the Lojban covers both potential and actual/realized fertility). See also {vanbi}, {sidju}, {rorci}, {farvi}, {banro}, {cange}. festi gismu -fes- x_1(s) is/are waste product(s) [left to waste] by x_2 (event/activity). Also shit, crap; agentive wasting (= {fesygau}, {fesyzu'e}). See also {xaksu}, {kalci}, {pinca}. fetsi gismu -fet- -fe'i- x_1 is a female/doe of species x_2 evidencing feminine trait(s) x_3 (ka); x_1 is feminine. See also {nakni}. figre gismu -fig- x_1 is a fig [fruit/tree] of species/strain x_2. See also {grute}. filso gismu -fis- x_1 reflects Palestinian culture/nationality in aspect x_2. See also {jordo}, {xebro}. finpe gismu -fip- -fi'e- x_1 is a fish of species x_2 [metaphorical extension to sharks, non-fish aquatic vertebrates]. See also {danlu}. finti gismu -fin- -fi'i- x_1 invents/creates/composes/authors x_2 for function/purpose x_3 from existing elements/ideas x_4. x_1 is creative/inventive. See also cmavo list {fi'e}, {ciska}, {pemci}, {zbasu}, {larcu}, specific works of authorship, {prosa}, {skina}. firca experimental gismu x_1 flirts with x_2 by doing x_3 See {cinse}, {pamta'a}, {cinjikca}, {mletritra}, {gletu} fisli experimental gismu x_1 is physical/actual/pertains to physics in aspect x_2 (ka) of type x_3 by standard/in metaphysics x_4 Perhaps includes (but would not be limited to): material, bodily, tangible. x1 need not be a substance/matter; spacetime, physical quantities (such as energy), virtual particles, and even the rules of physics and some mathematical theorems could be considered to be physical. See also: {jikfi}, {termu'e}, {termu'eske}, {mairza'i}, {tifmu'eza'i}, {dacti}, {marji}, {xanri}, {fatci}, {menli}, {cinmo}, {cmaci}. fizbu experimental gismu x_1 is excited/feels excitement about x_2 (event/property) See {ue'i}, {entuzi} flaci experimental gismu x_1 flashes flalu gismu -fla- x_1 is a law specifying x_2 (state/event) for community x_3 under conditions x_4 by lawgiver(s) x_5. x_1 is a legality; x_2 is legal/licit/legalized/a legality (= {selfla} for reordered places). See also {javni}, {ritli}, {zekri}, {pulji}, {tinbe}. flani gismu x_1 is a flute/pipe/fife/recorder [flute-like/air-reed musical instrument]. See also {zgike}. flecu gismu -fle- x_1 is a current/flow/river of/in x_2 flowing in direction to/towards x_3 from direction/source x_4. [x_1 is a stream of x_2; x_2 is a fluid Gas or liquid. (= {selfle} for reordered places); x_1 flushes toward x_3; flush (= {caifle}, {sukfle})]; See also {rirxe}, {senta} where no directionality is implied, {rinci}, {xampo}, {dikca}, {sakci}, {gapci}, {litki}, {ciblu}. flese experimental gismu x_1 is philosophy about/of sub-field x_2, characterized by ideas/methodology x_3 See {saske}, {filsofiia}. Proposed rafsi: -les- ; see {lespre}, {lespei} fliba gismu -fli- x_1 fails at doing x_2 (state/event); x_1 is a failure at its role in x_2. Baffled (= {pesfli}, {jmifli}, {dafspufli}, {menfli}, among other senses); also x_2 ceases/does not complete/fails to continue due to failure on the part of x_1. See also {cfila}, {snada}, {srera}, {troci}, {sisti}, {ranji}, {denpa}, {bebna}, {zunti}. flira gismu -fir- x_1 is a/the face [head/body-part] of x_2; (adjective:) x_1 is facial. See also {sefta}, {stedu}, {crane}, {mebri}. foldi gismu -flo- -foi- x_1 is a field [shape/form] of material x_2; x_1 is a broad uniform expanse of x_2. Also woods (= {ricfoi}), lawn/meadow (= {sasfoi}), brush (= {spafoi}, {cicyspafoi}). See also {purdi}, {cange}. fonmo gismu -fom- -fo'o- x_1 is a quantity of foam/froth/suds of material x_2, with bubbles/vacuoles of material x_3. See also {zbabu}. fonxa gismu -fon- x_1 is a telephone transceiver/modem attached to system/network x_2. See also {tcana}. forca gismu -fro- x_1 is a fork/fork-type tool/utensil for purpose x_2 with tines/prongs x_3 on base/support x_4. See also {dakfu}, {smuci}, {komcu}, {tutci}. forse experimental gismu x_1 has physical force in x_2 (property of x_1) 'ti forse lo neftoni be li pa' - 'this has a force of 1 Newton'. See also {neftoni} fraso gismu -fas- x_1 reflects French/Gallic culture/nationality/language in aspect x_2. See also {ropno}. frati gismu -fra- x_1 reacts/responds/answers with action x_2 to stimulus x_3 under conditions x_4; x_1 is responsive. x_3 stimulates x_1 into reaction x_2, x_3 stimulates reaction x_2 (= {terfra} for place reordering); attempt to stimulate, prod (= {terfratoi}, {tunterfratoi}). See also {preti}, {danfu}, {spuda}, {cpedu}, {tarti}. fraxu gismu -fax- x_1 forgives x_2 for event/state/activity x_3. See also {dunda}, {curmi}, {zungi}. frica gismu -fic- x_1 differs/is distinct from/contrasts with/is unlike x_2 in property/dimension/quantity x_3. Also other-than (less common meaning). See also {ranxi}, {drata}, {dunli}, {simsa}, {vrici}. friko gismu -fi'o- x_1 reflects African culture/nationality/geography in aspect x_2. See also {ropno}, {xazdo}. frili gismu -fil- x_1 (action) is easy/simple/facile for x_2 (agent) under conditions x_3; x_2 does x_1 freely/easily. See also {nandu}, {sampu}, {zifre}. frinu gismu x_1 is a fraction, with numerator x_2, denominator x_3 (x_2/x_3). See also {parbi}, {dilcu}, {mekso}, {fendi}, {fi'u}. friti gismu -fit- x_1 offers/proffers x_2 [offering] to x_3 with conditions x_4. (x_4 may be nu canja, nu pleji, etc.; an unconditional offering has the 'condition' of acceptance); x_2 may be a specific object, a commodity (mass), an event, or a property; pedantically, for objects/commodities, this is sumti-raising from ownership of the object/commodity (= {posfriti}, {posyselfriti} for unambiguous semantics). See also {canja}, {dunda}, {rinsa}, {vecnu}, {jdima}, {cnemu}, {pleji}, {vitke}. frumu gismu -fru- x_1 frowns/grimaces (facial expression). x_1 frowns/grimaces at/in reaction to x_2 (= {frufra}). See also {cmila}, {cisma}. fukpi gismu -fuk- -fu'i- x_1 is a copy/replica/duplicate/clone of x_2 in form/medium x_3 made by method x_4 (event). See also {krefu}, {rapli}, {gidva}.; Borrowing (={fu'ivla}). fulta gismu -ful- -flu- x_1 (passive) floats on/in fluid (gas/liquid) x_2; x_1 is buoyant. See also {limna}, {bloti}, {sakli}. funca gismu -fun- -fu'a- x_1 (event/property) is determined by the luck/fortune of x_2; (note mabla/zabna not implied). See also {cunso}, {mabla}, {zabna}. fusra gismu -fur- x_1 rots/decays/ferments with decay/fermentation agent x_2; x_1 is rotten/decayed/fermented. See also {birje}, {vanju}, {vifne}. fuzme gismu -fuz- -fu'e- x_1 is responsible/accountable for x_2 (action/resulting state) to judge/authority x_3. See also {bilga}. gacri gismu -gai- x_1 is a cover/[lid/top] for covering/concealing/sheltering x_2. See also {pilka}, {gapru}, {marbi}, {drudi}, ve {botpi}, {bitmu}, {calku}. gadri gismu -gad- x_1 is an article/descriptor labelling description x_2 (text) in language x_3 with semantics x_4. x_2 is the noun phrase/sumti without the article/descriptor; description ((x_1 with x_2) = gadysu'i); note: 'determiner' has become the accepted general linguistics term, displacing 'article'; however, 'determiner' includes all words that can introduce a noun phrase/sumti, whether a description or not, such as pronoun possessives like lemi, quantifiers (especially in indefinites) like ci and su'o, and demonstratives like ti, ta, and tu; the term 'descriptor' in Lojban, is limited to words that introduce descriptions (excluding indefinites), such as those of selma'o LA and LE, their common compounds such as lemi, and possibly lenu. 'article' typically refers only to a single word; Lojban assumes the broader meaning] See also {valsi}, {cmavo}. galfi gismu -gaf- -ga'i- x_1 (event) modifies/alters/changes/transforms/converts x_2 into x_3. Causal, resultative change; agentive modification (= {gafygau}, {gafyzu'e}). (cf. {stika} for non-resultative, {binxo} for not-necessarily causal change, {cenba} for non-resultative change; {zasni}) galtu gismu -gal- -ga'u- x_1 is high/up/upward in frame of reference x_2 as compared with baseline/standard height x_3. Also upper; x_3 is generally some defined distance above a zero point/baseline, or is that baseline itself. See also {gapru}, {dizlo}, {cnita}, {drudi}, {farna}. galxe gismu x_1 is a/the throat/gullet [body-part] of x_2; [metaphor: narrow(ing) opening of a deep hole]. See also {cnebo}, {kevna}, {tunlo}. ganlo gismu -ga'o- x_1 (portal/passage/entrance-way) is closed/shut/not open, preventing passage/access to x_2 by x_3 (something being blocked). As a doorway, but also perhaps a semi-permeable membrane. x_3 is blocked by x_1. x_2 is inaccessible. See also {kalri}, {pagre}, {canko}, {vorme}, {zunti}. ganra gismu -gan- x_1 is broad/wide in dimension x_2 [2nd most significant dimension] by standard x_3. See also {clani}, {jarki}, {rotsu}, {condi}, {barda}, {gutci}, {minli}. ganse gismu -gas- -ga'e- x_1 [observer] senses/detects/notices stimulus x_2 (object/nu) by means x_3 under conditions x_4. x_1 is sensitive to x_2; also feels, spots, perceives, makes out, discerns/recognizes (but only implying reaction without necessarily any significant mental processing); note that the emphasis is on a property which stimulates x_1 and is detected (sanji is passive about the sensing, and is not limited to sensory input, as well as presuming some kind of discernment/recognition, while not being concerned with the means of detection); x_3 sense/sensory channel. See also {pencu}, {sanji}, {viska}, {sumne}, {tirna}, {zgana}, {canci}, {simlu}. ganti gismu x_1 is a/the testes/ovary/testicle/scrotum/balls/gonad/stamen/pistil [body-part] of x_2, gender x_3. Egg/sperm/pollen/gamete producing/bearing organ. See also {plibu}, {sovda}, {pinji}, {gutra}, {mabla}. ganxo gismu -gax- x_1 is a/the anus/anal orifice/asshole/arsehole [body-part] of x_2; [metaphor: exit, waste exit]. Also asshole/ass/arsehole; (adjective:) x_1 is anal. See also {zargu}, {kalci}, {mabla}, {rinci}. ganzu gismu -gaz- x_1 organizes x_2 [relative chaos] into x_3 [ordered/organized result] by system/principle(s) x_4. x_3 is also a system; x_4 could be merely a function which inherently serves to dictate the organizational structure of x_3. See also {ciste}, {morna}, {stura}, {bilni}, {cabra}. gapci gismu -gac- x_1 is gaseous/fumes/a gas/vapor of material/composition including x_2, under conditions x_3. x_3 includes temperature and pressure. See also {pambe}, {vacri}, {litki}, {sligu}, {danmo}, {bumru}, {cidro}, {flecu}. gapru gismu -gap- x_1 is directly/vertically above/upwards-from x_2 in gravity/frame of reference x_3. See also {tsani}, {galtu}, {cnita}, {drudi}, {gacri}, {dizlo}, {farna}. garna gismu -gar- x_1 is a rail/railing/bar [tool] supporting/restraining x_2, of material x_3. See also {kamju}, {grana}, {tutci}. gasnu gismu -gau- x_1 [person/agent] is an agentive cause of event x_2; x_1 does/brings about x_2. See also {gau}, {gunka}, {zukte}, {rinka}, {fasnu} for non-agentive events, {jibri}, {kakne}, {pilno} gaspo experimental gismu x_1 pertains to Gua\\spi language/culture in aspect x_2 gasta gismu -gat- x_1 is a quantity of/is made of/contains steel of composition including x_2. See also {jinme}, {molki}, {tirse}. genja gismu -gej- x_1 is a root [body-part] of plant/species x_2; [metaphor: immobile, supporting, nourishing]. See also {jamfu}, {jicmu}, {patlu}, {samcu}, {spati}, {krasi}. gento gismu -get- -ge'o- x_1 reflects Argentinian culture/nationality in aspect x_2. See also {xispo}, {ketco}, {spano}. genxu gismu -gex- x_1 is a hook/crook [shape/form] of material x_2. See also {kruvi}, {korcu}. gerku gismu -ger- -ge'u- x_1 is a dog/canine/[bitch] of species/breed x_2. See also {lorxu}, {labno}, {mlatu}. gerna gismu -gen- -ge'a- x_1 is the grammar/rules/defining form of language x_2 for structure/text x_3. See also {bangu}, {stura}, {cmavo}, {jufra}. gidva gismu -gid- -gi'a- x_1 (person/object/event) guides/conducts/pilots/leads x_2 (active participants) in/at x_3 (event). A guiding person advises/suggests/sets an example to be followed, but does not necessarily control/direct/manage actual execution of an event; an event may serve as a guide by setting a pattern/example to be emulated. See also {jitro}, {ralju}, {sazri}, te {bende}, {jatna}, {fukpi}, {morna}. gigdo gismu -gig- -gi'o- x_1 is a billion [British milliard] [10^9] of x_2 in dimension/aspect x_3 (default is units). See also {grake}, {mitre}, {snidu}, {stero}, {delno}, {molro}, {kelvo}, {xampo}, {gradu}. {litce}, {merli}, {centi}, {decti}, {dekto}, {femti}, {gocti}, {gotro}, {kilto}, {megdo}, {mikri}, {milti}, {nanvi}, {petso}, {picti}, {terto}, {xatsi}, {xecto}, {xexso}, {zepti}, {zetro} ginka gismu -gik- x_1 is a camp/encampment/temporary residence of x_2 at location x_3. See also {dinju}, {xabju}, {zdani}. girzu gismu -gir- -gri- x_1 is group/cluster/team showing common property (ka) x_2 due to set x_3 linked by relations x_4. Also collection, team, comprised of, comprising; members x_3 (a specification of the complete membership) comprise group x_1; cluster (= {kangri}). See also {bende}, {ciste}, {cmima}, {gunma}, {panra}, {cabra}, {cecmu}, {kansa}, {klesi}, {lanzu}, {liste}, {vrici}. gismu gismu -gim- -gi'u- x_1 is a (Lojban) root word expressing relation x_2 among argument roles x_3, with affix(es) x_4. Gismu list, if physical object (= ({loi}) {gimste}); referring to the mental construct (e.g. propose adding a new gismu to the gismu list = {gimpoi}, {gimselcmi}, {gimselste}). See also {cmavo}, {cmene}, {lujvo}, {smuni}, {sumti}, {tanru}, {valsi}. glare gismu -gla- x_1 is hot/[warm] by standard x_2. Warm (= {mligla}), feverish (= {bi'agla}). See also {lenku}. gleki gismu -gek- -gei- x_1 is happy/merry/glad/gleeful about x_2 (event/state). Adversity (= {kamnalgei}). See also {badri}, {cinmo}. gletu gismu -let- -gle- x_1 copulates/fucks/mates/has coitus/sexual intercourse with x_2. x_1 and x_2 are symmetrical; mounts (= {cpanygle}). See also {cinse}, {pinji}, {plibu}, {vibna}, {vlagi}, {mabla}, {speni}. glico gismu -gic- -gli- x_1 is English/pertains to English-speaking culture in aspect x_2. Generally assume broadest sense of 'English'; may refer to 'English', pertaining to the country/people/culture of England (normally requiring constraint = gligu'e, or simply redundancy = gligli-); British English, the norm language of the UK (= {gliglibau}). (cf. {brito} which refers to the United Kingdom as a whole or to the British empire, {merko}, {sralo}, {kadno}, {skoto}) glife experimental gismu x_1 is a glyph, elemental symbol within an agreed set of symbols, intended to represent character x_2 Glyphs are used for the purposes of writing, expressing thoughts, ideas and concepts. See also {lerfu} glosa experimental gismu x_1 is a gloss (brief explanatory note or translation) of x_2 (text) See also {lo} {ve} {ciksi}, {uenzi}, {traduki} gluta gismu -glu- x_1 is a mitten/glove [hand and lower arm garment] of material x_2. Mitten (= {degycauglu}). See also {taxfu}. gocti gismu -goc- x_1 is 10^{-24} of x_2 in dimension/aspect x_3 (default is units). See also {grake}, {mitre}, {snidu}, {stero}, {delno}, {molro}, {kelvo}, {xampo}, {gradu}. {litce}, {merli}, {centi}, {decti}, {dekto}, {femti}, {gigdo}, {gotro}, {kilto}, {megdo}, {mikri}, {milti}, {nanvi}, {petso}, {picti}, {terto}, {xatsi}, {xecto}, {xexso}, {zepti}, {zetro} gomsi experimental gismu x_1 reflects/pertains to the Mediterranean region/culture/geography/identity/[nationality] in aspect x_2 gotro gismu -got- x_1 is 10^24 of x_2 in dimension/aspect x_3 (default is units). See also {grake}, {mitre}, {snidu}, {stero}, {delno}, {molro}, {kelvo}, {xampo}, {gradu}. {litce}, {merli}, {centi}, {decti}, {dekto}, {femti}, {gigdo}, {gocti}, {kilto}, {megdo}, {mikri}, {milti}, {nanvi}, {petso}, {picti}, {terto}, {xatsi}, {xecto}, {xexso}, {zepti}, {zetro} gradu gismu -rau- x_1 [magnitude] is a unit/degree of/on scale/reference standard x_2 (si'o) measuring property x_3. Also grade, level, point; x_3 dimension. See also {ckilu}, {kantu}, {kelvo}, {merli}, {ranti}, {selci}. grafu experimental gismu x_1 is the graph on vertices/nodes x_2 (set) and edges x_3 (set of ordered tuples of vertices in x_2) and with additional properties x_4. A "web"/"network". An element of x2 is a "place" in a more generic/abstract/metaphoric sense than spatial; must be discrete. Thus, webpages, family diagrams, lattices, pages in a book, cities and roadways on a map, etc. constitute graphs. x1 also includes trees. Notice that both x2 and x3 are sets; a member of x3 is an orderedmember of x3 is an ordered tuple, but the order only matters if x1 is oriented, in which case the edge connects from the first node in the tuple to the second node in the tuple (there should only be two entries in the tuple) tuple, but the order only matters if x1 is oriented, in which case the edge connects from the first node in the tuple to the second node in the tuple (there should only be two entries in the tuple). x4 can include defining features, weights, etc. Equivalent to {grafetu} (which is merely the fu'ivla form of this word); very similar to {tcana}. grake gismu -gra- x_1 is x_2 gram(s) [metric unit] in mass (default is 1) by standard x_3. See also {junta}, {kilto}, {bunda}, {centi}, {decti}, {dekto}, {femti}, {gigdo}, {gocti}, {gotro}, {litce}, {megdo}, {mikri}, {milti}, {nanvi}, {petso}, {picti}, {terto}, {xatsi}, {xecto}, {xexso}, {zepti}, {zetro}. grana gismu -ga'a- x_1 is a rod/pole/staff/stick/cane [shape/form] of material x_2. See also {garna}. grasu gismu -ras- x_1 is a quantity of/is made of/contains grease/fat/oil from source x_2. See also {ctile}, {matne}, {plana}. grava experimental gismu x1 pertains/is related to/reflects (the) gravitational interaction [fundamental]/gravity in manner/with properties/in state/with realization x2, coupling to x3 in manner/with strength x4 Proposed short rafsi: -gav-. See also: {jikfi}, {dicma}, {vubla}, {tsaba}, {xigzo}, {junta}. greku gismu -rek- x_1 is a frame/structure/skeleton/outline supporting/load-bearing/determining the form of x_2. See also {korbi}, {stura}, {tsina}, {bongu}. grusi gismu -rus- x_1 is gray [color adjective]. See also {skari}, {blabi}, {xekri}, {kandi}, {carmi}. grute gismu -rut- x_1 is a fruit [body-part] of species x_2. See also {badna}, {dembi}, {figre}, {guzme}, {narge}, {perli}, {pilka}, {plise}, {spati}, {stagi}, {tamca}, {tsiju}, {tarbi}, {panzi}, {rorci}, te {pruce}, {jbari}, {nimre}. gubni gismu -gub- x_1 is public/un-hidden/open/jointly available to/owned by all among community x_2 (mass). See also {sivni}. gugde gismu -gug- -gu'e- x_1 is the country of peoples x_2 with land/territory x_3; (people/territory relationship). Also sovereignty, domestic (as opposed to foreign), nation (when not referring to ethnos). See also {turni}, {natmi}, {jecta}, {tumla}, {tutra}, {lanci}. gugle experimental gismu x_1 searches network or collection of information/data/facts, etc. (especially the Internet) for information on topic/quote x_2 using service/tool/search resource/function x_3 provided by (host, company, etc.) x_4 with accessed information sources (websites, network, documents, books, etc.) x_5. x_3 is a search engine that provides information/resource/output on topic/query x_2 by way of organized and (semi-)automated/quick information search through many providers/sources of information including x_5, with search service provided by x_4 and provided to/used by/accessible to (potential or actual) user x_1 (who does not actually perform the initial search/sorting/recruiting of information). x_4 is a search engine service provider able to present search results via service/tool x_3. Key word search, academic search, picture search, video search, map search, etc. can be expressed by x3; the algorithm and other means of searching through, organizing and ranking, and presenting the massive amount of information (provided by x5) may likewise be expressed by x3 (in brief). The creation and/or use of this word does not endorse Google or any other search engine service provider. Proposed short rafsi form: –gul–. See also: {valfa} gumri experimental gismu x_1 is a mushroom of species x_2. Cf. {mledi}, {ledgrute} gundi gismu -gud- x_1 is industry/industrial/systematic manufacturing activity producing x_2 by process/means x_3. See also {cupra}, {fanri}, {rutni}, {zbasu}. gunka gismu -gun- -gu'a- x_1 [person] labors/works on/at x_2 [activity] with goal/objective x_3. Also: x_1 is a worker/laborer. (cf. {sazri}, {gasnu}, {se} {jibri}; {zukte} - which need not be labor; physics term 'work' = {ni} {muvyselbai}, {briju}, {jibri}, {lazni}, {selfu}) gunma gismu -gum- x_1 is a mass/team/aggregate/whole, together composed of components x_2, considered jointly. A description in x_1 indicates of mass property(ies) displayed by the mass; masses may reveal properties not found in the individual set members that are massified, which themselves are not necessarily relevant to the mass property implicit in this bridi. See also {bende}, {girzu}, {pagbu}, cmavo list {loi}, {lei}, {lai}, {ciste}, {cmima}, {kansa}, {tinci}, {mulgunma}. gunro gismu -gur- -gu'o- x_1 rolls/trundles on/against surface x_2 rotating on axis/axle x_3; x_1 is a roller. See also {bolci}, {carna}, {jendu}, {slanu}. gunse gismu x_1 is a goose/[gander] of species/breed x_2. See also {cipni}. gunta gismu -gut- x_1 (person/mass) attacks/invades/commits aggression upon victim x_2 with goal/objective x_3. See also {bradi}, {damba}, {darxi}, {jamna}, {jenca}, {jursa}. gurni gismu -gru- x_1 is grain/[British: corn]/cereal from plant/species x_2. See also {bavmi}, {cunmi}, {mavji}, {maxri}, {molki}, {mraji}, {rismi}, {sobde}, {spati}, {zumri}, {nanba}, {sorgu}. guska gismu -guk- x_1 blade/scraper/erosive scrapes/erodes/abrades x_2 from x_3. Abrade, abrasive (= {mosyguska}). See also {balre}, {sraku}, {batci}, {canpa}, {mosra}. gusni gismu -gus- -gu'i- x_1 [energy] is light/illumination illuminating x_2 from light source x_3. [x_3 illuminates/lights x_2 with light/illumination x_1; x_2 is lit/illuminated by illumination x_1 from source x_3 (= {selgu'i} for reordered places); light/lamp (= {tergu'i})](cf. {dirce}, {manku}, {solri}, {carmi}, {ctino}, {kantu}) gusta gismu x_1 is a restaurant/cafe/diner serving type-of-food x_2 to audience x_3. See also {barja}, {citka}, {kukte}, {sanmi}, {xotli}. gutci gismu -guc- x_1 is x_2 (default 1) short local distance unit(s) [non-metric], standard x_3, x_4 subunits. Foot (= {jmagutci}); yard (= {cibjmagutci}), pace (= {tapygutci}), inch (= {degygutci}), cubit (= {birgutci}). (additional subunit places may be added as x_5, x_6, ...); See also {mitre}, {clani}, {ganra}, {condi}, {rotsu}, {rupnu}, {fepni}, {dekpu}, {minli}, {merli}, {bunda}, {kramu}. gutra gismu x_1 is a/the womb/uterus [body-part] of x_2; [metaphor: nourishing, protective, giving birth]. See also {jbena}, {rorci}, {sovda}, {tarbi}, {ganti}, {mabla}. guzme gismu -guz- -zme- x_1 is a melon/squash [fruit/plant] of species/strain x_2. See also {grute}. jabre gismu x_1 brakes/causes to slow motion/activity x_2 with device/mechanism/principle x_3. See also {mosra}. jadni gismu -jad- -ja'i- x_1 (object) adorns/decorates x_2; x_1 is an adornment/decoration of x_2; x_2 is fancy/decorated. Fancy/decorated (= {selja'i}). See also {jemna}, {dirba}, {batke}. jakne gismu x_1 is a rocket [vehicle] propelled by jet expelling x_2 carrying payload x_3. See also {cecla}, {danti}, {spoja}. jalge gismu -jag- -ja'e- x_1 (action/event/state) is a result/outcome/conclusion of antecedent x_2 (event/state/process). Also: x_2 gives rise to x_1 (= selja'e for reordered places); total (general meaning, but also = mekyja'e, pi'irja'e, sujyja'e). See also se {mukti}, te {zukte}, se {rinka}, se {krinu}, se {nibli}, {mulno}, {sumji}, {pilji}, {mekso}, cmavo list {ja'e}, {ciksi}. jalna gismu x_1 is a quantity of/contains/is made of starch from source x_2 of composition including x_3. See also {patlu}, {samcu}. jalra gismu x_1 is a cockroach/orthopteran/termite of order/species/breed x_2. Also grasshopper (= {pipyjalra}); cricket (= {sagjalra}); locust, termite (= {mantyjalra} or {mudyctijalra}). (Orthoptera includes grasshoppers, crickets, etc; termites are a closely-related non-Orthoptera, more akin to cockroaches than to e.g. ants); See also {cinki}, {civla}, {manti}. jamfu gismu -jaf- -jma- x_1 is a/the foot [body-part] of x_2; [metaphor: lowest portion] (adjective:) x_1 is pedal. See also {jicmu}, {genja}, {zbepi}, {tuple}, {jubme}, {xance}, {tamji}. jamna gismu -jam- x_1 (person/mass) wars against x_2 over territory/matter x_3; x_1 is at war with x_2. See also {bradi}, {gunta}, {panpi}, {damba}, {darlu}. janbe gismu -jab- x_1 is a bell/chime/[tuning fork] [tuned percussion instrument] producing sound/note x_2. Also: x_1 rings/tolls (i.e. if it rings, then it is a bell); resonates (one sense, = {jabdesku}). See also {zgike}, {tonga}, {desku}, {slilu}. janco gismu -jan- x_1 is a/the shoulder/hip/joint [body-part] attaching limb/extremity x_2 to body x_3. See also {birka}. janli gismu -jal- x_1 collides with/crashes/bumps/runs into x_2. (also collide = {simjanli} for a collision between two moving objects); See also {darxi}. jansu gismu -jas- x_1 is a diplomat/consul representing polity x_2 in/at negotiation x_3 for function/purpose x_4. (for) x_3 polity, (use tu'a); also ambassador (= {raljansu}, {trujansu}). See also {jecta}, {krati}. janta gismu -jat- x_1 is an account/bill/invoice for goods/services x_2, billed to x_3 by x_4. See also {jdima}, {vamji}, {vecnu}, {canja}, {jerna}, {dejni}, {jbera}. jarbu gismu x_1 is a suburban area of city/metropolis x_2. See also {nurma}, se {tcadu}, ve {tcadu}. jarco gismu -ja'o- x_1 (agent) shows/exhibits/displays/[reveals]/demonstrates x_2 (property) to audience x_3. [reveal (= {tolmipygau}, {mipyja'o}, {sivja'o}); also: x_1 shows that x_2, x_1 shows off x_2; Use {arco} for displaying objects.; See also {tigni}, {cipra}, {zgana}, {jvinu}, {lanli}, {mipri}, {simlu}. jarki gismu -jak- x_1 is narrow in dimension x_2 [2nd most significant dimension] by standard x_3. See also {caxno}, {cinla}, {tordu}, {tagji}, {cmalu}. jaspu gismu -jap- x_1 is a passport issued to x_2 (person) by authority x_3 allowing x_4 (activity). See also {pikta}, {catni}, {curmi}. jatna gismu -ja'a- x_1 is captain/commander/leader/in-charge/boss of vehicle/domain x_2. See also {jitro}, {lidne}, te {bende}, {minde}, {ralju}, {gidva}, {bloti}. javni gismu -jva- x_1 is a rule prescribing/mandating/requiring x_2 (event/state) within system/community x_3. Regulation, prescription (also x_2), principle, requirement (also x_2), prescribe, require (conditions are usually contained within x_2); x_1 is regulatory; x_2, x_3 are regulated. See also {flalu}, {ritli}, cmavo list {ja'i}, {marde}, {tcaci}, {tinbe}, {zekri}. jbama gismu -bam- x_1 is a bomb/explosive device with explosive material/principle x_2. See also {cecla}, {spoja}. jbari gismu -jba- x_1 is a berry (fruit/plant) of plant/species x_2. See also {grute}, {tsiju}, {narge}. jbena gismu -jbe- x_1 is born to x_2 at time x_3 [birthday] and place x_4 [birthplace]; x_1 is native to (fo) x_4. x_2 bears/gives birth to x_1; also x_3: natal day. See also {fange}, {gutra}, {rorci}, {mamta}, {salci}, {citsi}. jbera gismu -jer- x_1 (agent) borrows/temporarily takes/assumes x_2 (object) from source x_3 for interval x_4. Credit (= {jernu'e}); borrow/assume a property or quality as a chameleon does (= {zaskai}, {zasysmitra}, {zasysmitai}). See also {dejni}, {janta}, {zivle}. jbini gismu -bin- -bi'i- x_1 is between/among set of points/bounds/limits x_2 (set)/amidst mass x_2 in property x_3 (ka). x_2 (a complete set, generally ordered) defines the bounds/limits/range for x_1. See also se {vasru}, {nenri}, {zvati}, {cpana}, {snuji}, {senta}, {bitmu}, {jimte}, {kuspe}, {jibni}, {lamji}, {sruri}, {vanbi}, {midju}, {cmima}, {setca}. jdari gismu -jar- x_1 is firm/hard/resistant/unyielding to force x_2 under conditions x_3. See also {nandu}, {ralci}, {randa}, {ranti}, {tinsa}, {sligu}, {stodi}. jdice gismu -jdi- x_1 (person) decides/makes decision x_2 (du'u) about matter x_3 (event/state). See also {pajni}, {cuxna}, {kanji}, {manri}. jdika gismu x_1 (experiencer) decreases/contracts/is reduced/diminished in property/quantity x_2 by amount x_3. See also {zenba}, {mleca}, {vimcu}. jdima gismu -di'a- x_1 [amount] is the price of x_2 to purchaser/consumer x_3 set by vendor x_4. x_2 may be a specific object, a commodity (mass), an event, or a property; pedantically, for objects/commodities, this is sumti-raising from ownership of the object/commodity (= {posydi'a}, {posyseldi'a} for unambiguous semantics); price is something decided/set by the seller, and is closely akin to offer ({friti}), which is what a buyer may decide; (note that price is not he same as cost/expense, which is the actual amount exchanged in a transaction; the latter is {vecnu} or {canja}; neither is the same as "value" or {vamji}; in colloquial English, these are sometimes interchanged, at least partially because of the rarity of barter and bargaining in the marketplace). See also {canja}, {friti}, {janta}, {jdini}, {kargu}, {pleji}, {dapma}, {vamji} for 'value', ve {vecnu} for 'cost', {canja}, {fepni}, {jerna}, {jinga}, {prali}, {rupnu}, {sfasa}, {vamji}. jdini gismu -din- -di'i- x_1 is money/currency issued by x_2; (adjective:) x_1 is financial/monetary/pecuniary/fiscal. 'currency' sometimes is restricted to paper money (= {pledi'i}). See also {fepni}, {jdima}, {rupnu}, {sicni}, {canja}. jduli gismu -dul- -jdu- x_1 is a quantity of jelly/semisolid [texture] of material/composition including x_2. (adjective:) x_1 is gelatinous. See also {litki}, {sligu}. jecta gismu -jec- -je'a- x_1 is a polity/state governing territory/domain x_2; [government/territory relationship]. (adjective:) x_1 is civil/political. See also {gugde}, {tutra}, {turni}, {natmi}, {jansu}, {lanci}, {cecmu}. jeftu gismu -jef- x_1 is x_2 weeks in duration (default is 1 week) by standard x_3. Re. x_3, a week may be more or less than seven days, classically being tied to the time between trips to the marketplace; this week (= {cabjeftu}); next week (= {bavlamjeftu}); last week (= {prulamjeftu}). See also {detri}, {djedi}, {masti}, {nanca}. jegvo gismu -jeg- -je'o- x_1 pertains to the common Judeo-Christian-Moslem (Abrahamic) culture/religion/nationality in aspect x_2. Also Muslim. See also {lijda}, {muslo}, {dadjo}, {xriso}. jelca gismu -jel- x_1 burns/[ignites/is flammable/inflammable] at temperature x_2 in atmosphere x_3. Default x_2/x_3 to normal temperatures in air; ignite (= {jelcfa}), flammable/inflammable (usually = {jelka'e} or {jelfrili}). See also {fagri}, {kijno}, {sigja}, {livla}, {sacki}. jemna gismu -jme- x_1 is a gem/polished stone/pearl of type x_2 from gemstone/material/source x_3. Also jewel (= {jmeja'i}); gemstone (= x_2, x_3, or {jmero'i}, {jmekunra}); pearl (= {selcakyjme} - a gem found inside a shell, {tercakyjme} - a gem made of shell material, {boijme} - any ball-shaped gem), mother-of-pearl (= {cakyjme}). See also {kunra}, {rokci}, {jadni}, {dirba}, {kargu}, {krili}, {pulji}. jenca gismu -jen- x_1 (event) shocks/stuns x_2. See also {darxi}, {gunta}, {spaji}. jendu gismu -jed- x_1 is an axle/spindle [tool] on which x_2 rotates, of material/properties x_3. See also se {carna}, {gunro}, {tutci}. jenmi gismu -jem- -jei- x_1 (mass) is an army serving group/community x_2 (mass) in function x_3 (activity). See also {bilni}, {sonci}, {xarci}. jensi experimental gismu x_1 is a (set/pair) of scissors/shears/clippers/(hedge) trimmers/tongs [tool] with parts/blades x_2 (scissor) and used for purpose x_3 x1 is any whole tool composed of parts (blades, x2) which slide relative to one another, usually (but not necessarily) around a common pivot, so that little distance is between the blades. The blades need not close all the way nor do they need to be sharp or used for cutting(they could be used for grasping). Tongs typically are grasping-scissors, but tweezers are not. The emphasis is on how the blades move relative to one another and how they are connected to handles; the design is usually simple with only a few separate funtional parts. At least part of the blades should be to the side of the respective part of the other blade (so that these regions can move/slide relative to one another), even if the blades as a whole meet and cannot slide passed one another completely (such as with tongs). x1 is the whole object/tool, x2 are the parts which move relative to one another; in English, x1 could be called the "(pair of) scissors" whereas x2 could be called "the scissor (blade)". jerna gismu x_1 (agent/person) earns/[deserves/merits] wages/salary/pay x_2 for work/service x_3 (activity). Also x_2 earnings, reward (= {zanseljerna} or {nemjerna}), punishment/comeuppance (= {sfaseljerna}, {malseljerna}); x_3 behavior; job (= {terjerna}); x_2 may be a specific object, a commodity (mass), an event, or a property; pedantically, for objects/commodities, this is sumti-raising from ownership of the object/commodity (= {posyjerna}, {posyseljerna} for unambiguous semantics). See also {jibri}, {pleji}, {vecnu}, {cnemu}, {canja}, {jdima}, {jinga}, {prali}, {sfasa}, {janta}, {kargu}, {vamji}. jersi gismu -je'i- x_1 chases/pursues/(physically) follows after x_2; volition is not implied for x_1 or x_2. x_1 follows after x_2. See also {kavbu}, {rivbi}, {kalte}, {lidne}. jerxo gismu -jex- x_1 reflects Algerian culture/nationality in aspect x_2. See also {friko}, {xrabo}, {muslo}, {fraso}. jesni gismu -jes- x_1 is a needle [pointed shape/form, not tool] of material x_2. See also {konju}, {pijne}, {jipno}, {kinli}. jetce gismu -je'e- x_1 is a jet [expelled stream] of material x_2 expelled from x_3. See also {sputu}, {vamtu}. jetnu gismu -jet- -je'u- x_1 (du'u) is true/truth by standard/epistemology/metaphysics x_2. Words usable for epistemology typically have a du'u place. See also {stace}, {jitfa}, {fatci}, {birti}, {cfika}. jgalu gismu -ja'u- x_1 is a/the claw/nail/talon [body-part] of x_2; [metaphor: pointed, penetrating, physical weapon]. See also {denci}, {jirna}, {batci}. jganu gismu -jga- x_1 is an angle [2-dimensional shape/form] from vertex x_2 subtended by lateral [segment] x_3. Also (adjective:) x_1 is angular; x_2 corner; (segment x_3 can be defined by interval). See also {kojna}, {linji}, {konju}, {mokca}. jgari gismu -jai- x_1 grasps/holds/clutches/seizes/grips/[hugs] x_2 with x_3 (part of x_1) at locus x_4 (part of x_2). Hug (= {birjai}, {pamjai}); handshake (= {xanjaisi'u}); hold with hands (= {xanjai}); handle (= {jaitci}). See also {ralte}, {pencu}, {darxi}, {batke}, {rinju}. jgena gismu -jge- x_1 is a knot/tangle in/between x_2 (object/jo'u-objects). Knot (verb = {jgegau}, {jgezu'e}, {jgeri'a}, {jgela'a}), knot: fastening between two or more cords (= {jgeterjo'e}). See also {pluja}, {julne}, {lasna}, {skori}. jgina gismu -gin- x_1 is a gene of creature [or locus on creature] x_2 determining trait/process x_3. Also chromosome = ({gincilta}, {ginpoi}). See also {cerda}. jgira gismu -jgi- x_1 (person) feels/has pride in/about x_2 (abstraction). An emotional combination of satisfaction and respect/esteem towards property(ies) or action(s) of person/entity that has a specific tie to emoter; self-pride (= {se'ijgi}, {tolcumla}); use x_2 tu'a for pride in non-specific actions/properties of someone. See also {cinmo}, {cumla}, {sevzi}, {sinma}, {snada}. jgita gismu -git- x_1 is guitar/violin/fiddle/harp [stringed musical instrument] with actuator/plectrum/bow x_2. Also lute, viola, cello. See also {zgike}. jibni gismu -jbi- x_1 is near/close to/approximates x_2 in property/quantity x_3 (ka/ni). See also {darno}, {nenri}, {vanbi}, {jbini}, {lamji}, {zvati}, {cpana}, {bartu}, {diklo}, {stuzi}. jibri gismu -jib- x_1 is a job/occupation/employment/vocation (a type of work regularly done for pay) of person x_2. Working for another (= {selplijibri}). See also {briju}, {gunka}, {te} {jerna} which is employment specifically for pay and not specifically for another, {te} {pilno} which is employment not necessarily for pay and not necessarily regular or lasting but for another, {se} {gasnu} and {se} {zukte} for incidental activities. jicla gismu x_1 (object, or event: force) stirs/mixes/[roils/agitates] fluid (gas/liquid) x_2. Convection (= {nenflejicla}); agentive stirring (= {jiclygau}, {jiclyzu'e}). See also {fanza}, {tunta}, {mixre}. jicmu gismu -cmu- x_1 is a basis/foundation/underlying or fundamental principle of x_2; x_1 is at the bottom of x_2. x_2 is founded on basis x_1 (= {selcmu} for reordered places); (adjective:) x_1 is basic/basal/fundamental); (generally events and properties will be bases for events and states, while objects may be bases/bottoms for objects). See also cmavo list {ji'u}, {jamfu}, {zbepi}, {genja}, {krasi}. jijnu gismu -jij- x_1 (person) intuits x_2 (du'u) about subject x_3; [epistemology]. Words usable for epistemology typically have a du'u place. See also {djuno}, {facki}, {jimpe}, {jinvi}, {nabmi}, {pensi}, {sidbo}, {smadi}. jikca gismu -jik- x_1 interacts/behaves socially with x_2; x_1 socializes with/is sociable towards x_2. See also {tarti}, {penmi}. jikfi experimental gismu x_1 is a physical interaction [colloquially: force] between x_2 (interacting participants/objects; symmetric) with characteristics/of type x_3 Not necessarily fundamental. Can include: forces ({forse}), pressures ({danre}), the fundamental interactions ({tsaba}, {dicma}, {vubla}, {grava}), the 'Higgs' mechanism ({xigzo}), etc. Direction (as of application) can be specified in x_3. See also {fisli}. jikni experimental gismu x_1 consists of the economic system (production and distribution and consumption) of sector components x_2; x_1 is economic. x2 may be a country or other area, the labor, capital and land resources, and the economic agents that socially participate in the production, exchange, distribution, and consumption of goods and services of that area; they may be joined with JOI. {pavmomseljikni} for "primary sector", {relmomseljikni} for "secondary sector", {cibmomseljikni} for "tertiary sector", and {vonmomseljikni} for "quaternary sector"; {gubyseljikni} for "public/state sector", {sivyseljikni} for "private sector", and {jikseljikni} for "social/voluntary sector". Cf. {venci'e}, {selpraci'e}. jikru gismu x_1 is made of/contains/is a quantity of liquor/spirits distilled from x_2. See also {barja}, {vanju}, {birje}, {xalka}. jilka gismu -jil- x_1 is a quantity of/contains/is made of alkali/base of composition including x_2. (adjective:) x_1 is alkaline. See also {sodna}, {bakri}, {sodva}. jilra gismu x_1 (person) is jealous of/envies x_2 (person) about/for x_3 (property - ka). See also {cinmo}. jimca gismu -jic- x_1 is a branch/bough/limb of x_2; x_2 forks into branches x_1; [preferred over metaphorical birka]. Also appendage. See also {birka}, {rebla}, {tuple}. jimpe gismu -jmi- x_1 understands/comprehends fact/truth x_2 (du'u) about subject x_3; x_1 understands (fi) x_3. See also {djuno}, {jijnu}, {morna}, {smuni}, {saske}, {viska}. jimte gismu -jit- x_1 is a limit/extreme/bound/border/[confinement] of x_2 in property/domain x_3. Restrain/constrain within limits (= {jitri'u}, {jitygau}, {jityzu'e}). See also cmavo list {ji'e}, {traji}, {korbi}, {kuspe}, {rinju}, {bapli}, {curmi}, {fanta}, {jbini}. jinci gismu x_1 is a pair of shears/scissors for cutting x_2. See also {katna}. jinda experimental gismu x_1 is a star polygon/polytope, with regular protrusions x_2, and regular intrusions x_3 Syn. {aste}. See {tarci}, {tarmi}. (ti jinda mu da) = "this is a five-pointed star". Proposed rafsi: -jid- jinga gismu -jig- -ji'a- x_1 (person/team) wins/gains prize x_2 from/over x_3 [competitors/losers] in competition x_4. Also: x_1 is a victor; x_2 reward; x_3 competitors here are opponents and in many situations, defeated/losers, vs. the set of those competing for a goal; x_2 may be a specific object, a commodity (mass), an event, or a property; pedantically, for objects/commodities, this is sumti-raising from ownership of the object/commodity (= {posyji'a}, {posyselji'a} for unambiguous semantics). See also {cirko}, {jivna}, {talsa}, {cnemu}, {prali}, {pleji}, {sfasa}, {jdima}, {jerna}, {bradi}, {kargu}, {kelci}. jinku gismu x_1 is a vaccine/immune-system stimulant protecting x_2 against disease x_3 introduced by method x_4. Also serum; inoculation (= {jestu'u} {veljinku}). See also {jurme}, {mikce}, {jesni}, {bilma}. jinme gismu -jim- x_1 is a quantity of/contains/is made of made of metal of composition including x_2. (adjective:) x_1 is metallic. See also {cnisa}, {gasta}, {lastu}, {margu}, {nikle}, {ransu}, {romge}, {sodna}, {tinci}, {tirse}, {tunka}, {zinki}, {kunra}, {sodva}. jinru gismu -jir- x_1 (object/person) is immersed/submerged/bathes in liquid x_2. Take a bath/bathe (= {jirsezlu'i}). See also {lumci}, {nenri}, {jinsa}. jinsa gismu -jis- x_1 (object) is clean/pure of material/contaminant/dirt x_2 by standard x_3. See also {lumci}, {jinru}, {curve}, {sepli}. jinto gismu x_1 is a well/spring of fluid x_2 at location x_3. See also {krasi}, {djacu}, {fenra}. jinvi gismu -jiv- -ji'i- x_1 thinks/opines x_2 [opinion] (du'u) is true about subject/issue x_3 on grounds x_4. Words usable for epistemology typically have a du'u place. See also cmavo list {pe'i}, {djuno}, {krici}, {ciksi}, {jijnu}, {nabmi}, {pensi}, {senpi}, {sidbo}, {birti}, {pinka}. jinzi gismu -jiz- x_1 (property - ka) is an innate/inherent/intrinsic/natural property/quality/aspect of x_2. See also {lakne}, {rarna}, {stati}, cmavo list {ka'e}, {tcaci}. jipci gismu x_1 is a chicken/[hen/cock/rooster]/small fowl [a type of bird] of species/breed x_2. See also {cipni}. jipno gismu -jip- -ji'o- x_1 is a tip/point/vertex/extremity/end [0-dimension shape/form] on object x_2 at locus x_3. See also {mokca}, {jesni}, {fanmo}, {kojna}, {krasi}. jirna gismu x_1 is a/the horn [body-part] of x_2; [metaphor: pointed extremity]. See also {jgalu}, {bongu}. jisra gismu x_1 is made of/contains/is a quantity of juice/nectar from-source/of-type x_2. Water-based extract from a (generally) biological source. See also {pinxe}, {djacu}, {grute}, {stagi}. jitfa gismu -jif- x_1 (du'u) is false/is an untruth by standard/epistemology/metaphysics x_2. Words usable for epistemology typically have a du'u place. See also {fatci}, {stace}, {jetnu}, {cfika}. jitro gismu -tro- x_1 has control over/harnesses/manages/directs/conducts x_2 in x_3 (activity/event/performance). x_2 are aspects/individuals controlled within activity/event x_3; manage (= {selzuktro}, {selzukfu'e}, {gu'etro}, {gunfu'e}, {xaktro}, {xakfu'e}) (as distinct from manager/boss = {gunterbe'e}, {gunja'a}, {gunmi'e}, {gunca'i}). (cf. cmavo list {ji'o}, {bapli}, te {bende}, {gidva} - which does not necessarily control or command, {jatna}, {macnu}, {minde}, {ponse}, {ralju}, {rinka}, {sazri}, {turni}, {vlipa}, {xance}, {xlura}) jivbu gismu x_1 weaves x_2 from material/[yarn] x_3. See also {fenso}, {nivji}. jivna gismu -jvi- x_1 competes/vies with opponent x_2 in contest/competition x_3 (event) for gain x_4; x_1 rivals x_2. Also x_2 opponent(s), competitor(s), rival(s); x_3 competition, race; x_4 prize, reward, recognition (gain may be internal or external). See also {cnemu}, {jinga}, {talsa}, {bradi}, {fapro}, {kelci}. jmaji gismu -jaj- x_1 (mass/jo'u) gathers/collects at location x_2 from locations x_3 (mass/jo'u). Also focus (= {seljmaji}). See also {crepu}. jmifa gismu x_1 is a shoal [shallow hazard]/reef of material x_2 in body of water x_3. Rapids (= {ri'erjmifa}, {ri'ercaxno}). See also {caxno}. jmina gismu -min- x_1 adds/combines x_2 to/with x_3, with result x_4; x_1 augments x_2 by amount x_3. See also {zmadu}, {banro}, {sumji}, {zenba}, {setca}. jmive gismu -miv- -ji'e- x_1 lives/is alive by standard x_2; x_1 is an organism/living thing. (adjective:) x_1 is vital, organic. See also {lifri}, {morsi}, {stuzi}, {zvati}, {xabju}. jonse experimental gismu x_1 accesses x_2 for purpose x_3 ; x_1 approaches / reaches / interacts with / reads / uses x_2 See {kargau}, {jorne}, {cpacu}, {tcidu}, {pilno}, {gasnu}. This word is intended to have a very broad meaning. Proposed rafsi: -jos- jordo gismu -jor- -jo'o- x_1 reflects Jordanian culture/nationality in aspect x_2. See also {filso}. jorne gismu -jon- -jo'e- x_1 is joined to/connects to/is united with x_2 at common locus x_3; x_1 and x_2 are a union. Also joined/fastened/attached by joint x_3/by means of x_3/with fastener x_3; fastener (= {jo'etci}, {jonvelyla'a}); train, sequence of joined objects (= {jonpoi}; {porjo'e} for a single object joined into a sequence). See also {lasna}, {fenso}, {kansa}, {pencu}, {penmi}. jubme gismu -jub- -jbu- x_1 is a table/flat solid upper surface of material x_2, supported by legs/base/pedestal x_3. See also {ckana}, {jamfu}, {nilce}, {zbepi}, {tsina}, {stizu}. judri gismu x_1 is an address of/are coordinates of x_2 in system x_3. See also {tcita}, {cmene}, {ciste}, {stuzi}. jufra gismu -juf- -ju'a- x_1 (text) is a sentence/statement about x_2 [topic/subject/predicate/focus] in language x_3. Phrase (= {jufpau}, {suzrelvla}, {suzvla}, {gensle}). See also {valsi}, {bangu}, {gerna}, {cusku}, {smuni}. jukni gismu -juk- x_1 is a spider/arachnid/crustacean/crab/lobster/non-insect arthropod of species/breed x_2. Due to the unusual grouping of concepts in this definition, {ankabuta} is favored for "spider". See also {cinki}, {danlu}. jukpa gismu -jup- x_1 cooks/prepares food-for-eating x_2 by recipe/method x_3 (process). Cook with heat (= {glajukpa}, {glaterjukpa}), bake (= {tokyjukpa}); fry (= {rasyjukpa}). See also {cupra}, {bredi}. julne gismu -ju'e- x_1 is a net/filter allowing passage of x_2, prohibiting passage of x_3, netting properties x_4. Also sieve. See also {komcu}, {ciste}, {jgena}. julro experimental gismu x_1 is an angle that measures to be x_2 (li; default: 1) local angular pseudo-units by standard x_3, with subunits x_4 Use for degrees, minutes, seconds, gradians, etc., where these measure angles or rotations. Full rotations might be such a unit in some situations, but that is a fairly natural unit and might warrant a separate word (possibly a lujvo with {radno} as a veljvo). jundi gismu -jud- -ju'i- x_1 is attentive towards/attends/tends/pays attention to object/affair x_2. See also {kurji}, {zvati}. jungo gismu -jug- x_1 reflects Chinese [Mandarin, Cantonese, Wu, etc.] culture/nationality/language in aspect x_2. See also {xazdo}. junla gismu -jul- x_1 is clock/watch/timer measuring time units x_2 to precision x_3 with timing mechanism/method x_4. Also timepiece. See also {cacra}, {mentu}, {snidu}, {tcika}, {temci}. junri gismu -jur- x_1 (person) is serious/earnest/has gravity about x_2 (event/state/activity). Also solemn (= {drijunri}, {ri'irjunri}, {tcejunri}). See also {tilju}, {xalbo}, {badri}, {ritli}. junta gismu x_1 is the weight of object x_2 in [gravitational or other force] field x_3. See also {grake}, {linto}, {tilju}, {bunda}. jurme gismu -jum- x_1 is a bacterium/germ/microbe/protozoan/amoeba [1-celled life] of species/defining property x_2. See also {vidru}. jursa gismu -jus- x_1 (event/action/state) is severe/harsh to x_2 [victim/experiencer]. See also {gunta}, {vlile}. jutsi gismu -jut- x_1 is a species of genus x_2, family x_3, etc.; [open-ended tree-structure categorization]. Also subspecies, order, phylum; (places do not correspond to specific levels in the hierarchy; rather, x_1 is at a "lower" or "bushier" part of the tree than x_2, x_2 is "lower" than x_3, etc.; skipping a place thus means that there is one or more known-and-unspecified levels of hierarchy between the two); not limited to Linnean animal/plant taxonomy. See also {klesi}, {lanzu}. juxre gismu -jux- x_1 (action) is clumsy/awkward by standard x_2. See also {sluji}, {muvdu}. jvinu gismu -vin- -ji'u- x_1 is the view/scene/panorama/sight/prospect of x_2 (object/location) from point-of-view x_3. Also x_1 is on display to x_2/x_3. See also {catlu}, {kanla}, {viska}, {canko}, {jarco}. jviso experimental gismu x_1 is the ISO designation/result/standard/code for topic x_2 applied to specific case/individual/group/thing x_3 according to rule/ISO specification x_4 published by/according to mandating organization x_5 (default: ISO) Theoretically, the standard organization/body could be other than ISO, but it should be prominent and/or international (and internationally recognized) in scope and nature; in such a case, replace each occurrence of "ISO" in the definition with the appropriate name/designation/title (of the organization, etc.). x1 need not be a name-designation/code (it could be the result of any rule), although it likely will commonly be so. Examples of possible x2-filling sumti: code-designations for language, country, currency, script, etc.. For an entity with a given code, use {terjviso} or {terseljviso} (specifying the type of entity being designated by use of the appropriate terbri j2); for a given ISO rule, consider {veljviso}; for the organization ISO, consider {xeljviso}. See also: {linga}, {landa}, {rucni}, {cilfu}, {jvinjiata}/{jvisiata}, {jvinjica'o}/{jvisica'o}, {jvisuai}, {jvisiupaco}, {jvisrcei}, {jvisrbipmo}. This word is the gismu version of: {javniso}/{jvaiso}. kabri gismu x_1 is a cup/glass/tumbler/mug/vessel/[bowl] containing contents x_2, and of material x_3. A kabri is normally eaten from by lifting it; a palta is not. See also {palta}, {citka}, {blaci}, {tansi}. kacma gismu x_1 is a camera/photographic equipment recording illumination type x_2 images to medium x_3. See also {lenjo}. kadno gismu x_1 reflects Canadian culture/nationality in aspect x_2. See also {bemro}, {glico}. kafke gismu x_1 coughs/farts/burps up/out x_2 [predominantly gaseous] from orifice x_3. See also {bilma}, {senci}, {sputu}, {vamtu}. kagni gismu -kag- x_1 is a company/corporation/firm/partnership chartered by authority x_2 for purpose x_3. Also enterprise/organization (if chartered). See also {kansa}, {kamni}, {banxa}, {bende}. kajde gismu -jde- x_1 (event/experience) warns/cautions x_2 (person) of/about danger x_3 (event/state/property). Agentive warning (= {jdegau}, {jdezu'e}); an attempt to warn which may not succeed (= {jdetoi}, {jdegautoi}, {jdezuktoi}). See also {ckape}, {nupre}, {snura}, {tcica}, {xlura}. kajna gismu x_1 is a shelf/counter/bar in/on/attached to supporting object x_2, for purpose x_3. See also {balni}. kakne gismu -ka'e- x_1 is able to do/be/capable of doing/being x_2 (event/state) under conditions x_3 (event/state). Also: has talent; know how to; know how to use (= {plika'e}). (cf. {stati}, {certu}, {gasnu} (in the time-free potential sense), {cmavo} list {ka'e}, cmavo list {nu'o}, cmavo list {pu'i}, {djuno}, {zifre}) kakpa gismu x_1 (agent) digs x_2 [material] up/out of x_3 [source/hole] with limbs/tool(s) x_4. Also x_1 cuts into x_3 (with material removal). See also {katna}, {plixa}, {sraku}, {canpa}, {sraku}. kalci gismu x_1 is a/the feces/excrement/dung/shit of x_2 (animal/person); (adjective:) x_1 is fecal (matter). Also crap. See also {ganxo}, {pinca}, {vikmi}, {mabla}, {festi}. kalri gismu -kar- x_1 (portal/passage/entrance-way) is open/ajar/not shut permitting passage/access to x_2 by x_3. As a doorway. x_3 is given access to x_2 through portal x_1. See also {ganlo}, {pagre}, {canko}, {vorme}. kalsa gismu -kas- x_1 is chaotic/disordered in property/aspect x_2 (ka). See also {cunso}, {cnici}. kalte gismu -kat- x_1 hunts/stalks prey/quarry/game x_2 for purpose x_3. Also verb: to fish (= {fipkalte}). See also {jersi}, {kavbu}, {sisku}, {rivbi}. kamju gismu x_1 is a column/pillar of material x_2. Spine (= {bogykamju}), vertebra (= {kamjybo'u}). See also {ckana}, {garna}, {sanli}, {slanu}. kamni gismu x_1 (mass) is a committee with task/purpose x_2 of body x_3. Board of directors/trustees/cabinet (= {trukamni}, {gritrukamni}). See also {bende}, {kagni}. kampu gismu -kau- x_1 (property - ka) is common/general/universal among members of set x_2 (complete set). Only fully universal sense applies; x_1 must be found in all members of x_2. For the non-universal sense see {fadni} and {zilfadni}. See also {cafne}, {rirci}, {fadni}, {cnano}, {tcaci}, {lakne}, {cmima}, {simxu}. kamre experimental gismu x_1 is a x_2 (li; number) of x_3 in dimension/aspect x_4 (default units) Generic form of the SI prefixes and the like. Called "metric prefix" (with lowercase "m" in "metric") because the metric (measure system) is not defined (in particular, to be decimal and in accordance with proto-SI standards). See also: {namcrgogolo}/{kamrngogolo}, {kacmre}, {zilkacmre}, {kancu}, {merli}, {radno}, {stero}, {molro}, {gradu}, {centi}, {decti}, {dekto}, {femti}, {gigdo}, {gocti}, {gotro}, {kilto}, {megdo}, {mikri}, {milti}, {nanvi}, {petso}, {picti}, {terto}, {xatsi}, {xecto}, {xexso}, {zepti}, {zetro}. kanba gismu x_1 is a goat/angora/[billy-goat/kid] of species/breed x_2. See also {lanme}, {sunla}. kancu gismu -kac- x_1 (agent) counts the number in set x_2 to be x_3 [number/count] counting [off] by units x_4. (x_2 is complete set); See also {kanji}, {satci}, {merli}. kandi gismu -kad- x_1 is dim/dull/pale/non-intense in property x_2 (ka) as received/measured by observer x_3. In colors, indicates unsaturated, pastel, pale (though blabi can also indicate a kind of paleness). See also {blabi}, {carmi}, {klina}, {linto}, {manku}, {murse}, {ruble}, {skari}, {milxe}, {blanu}, {bunre}, {cicna}, {crino}, {grusi}, {narju}, {nukni}, {pelxu}, {xekri}, {xunre}, {zirpu}. kanji gismu -kaj- x_1 calculates/reckons/computes x_2 [value (ni)/state] from data x_3 by process x_4. See also {kancu}, {jdice}, {skami}. kanla gismu -kal- x_1 is a/the eye [body-part] of x_2; [metaphor: sensory apparatus]; (adjective:) x_1 is ocular. x_1 is optic. See also {jvinu}, {kerlo}, {viska}, {kumte}. kanpe experimental gismu x_1 expects/looks for the occurence of x_2 (event), expected likelihood x_3 (0-1, default {li} {so'a} i.e. near 1); x_1 subjectively evaluates the likelihood of x_2 (event) to be x_3. The value of x_3 is a subjective estimate of likeliness according to x_1, and is the basic determinant of whether kanpe means something like "hope" or "wish" or "expect", although kanpe never carries the connotation of desire; for that connotation see {pacna}. kanpe with x_3 not very close to 1 has no simple equivalent in English, but for objects/states with negligible expectation it is something like "wishing"; if the state is plausibly likely, it is something like "hoping". In both cases, though, the English implication of emotional desire is not present. The value will usually be expressed using inexact numbers ("{li} {piso'u}" to "{li} {piro}"); not-necessarily desirous wish, not necessarily desirous hope. See also {ba'a}, {djica}, {pacna}, {lakne}, {cunso}. kanro gismu -ka'o- x_1 is healthy/fit/well/in good health by standard x_2. See also {bilma}, {mikce}. kansa gismu -kan- x_1 is with/accompanies/is a companion of x_2, in state/condition/enterprise x_3 (event/state). x_1 is together with/along with x_2. See also {kagni}, {jorne}, {gunma}, {girzu}, {lasna}. kantu gismu -ka'u- x_1 is a quantum/ray/elementary particle/smallest measurable increment of property/activity x_2. Quantum ray (= {bonka'u}). (cf. {selci} for masses and most objects; {ratni}, {gradu}, {gusni}, {nejni}, {linji}) kanxe gismu -kax- x_1 is a conjunction, stating that x_2 (du'u) and x_3 (du'u) are both true. See also {vlina}. karbi gismu -kab- x_1 [observer] compares x_2 with x_3 in property x_4 (ka), determining comparison x_5 (state). See also {klani}, {mapti}, {sarxe}, {zmadu}, {mleca}, {dunli}. karce gismu x_1 is a car/automobile/truck/van [a wheeled motor vehicle] for carrying x_2, propelled by x_3 See also {carce}, {xislu}, {marce}, {sabnu}. karda gismu x_1 is a card [small nearly-2-dimensional shape/form] of material x_2, shape x_3. (x_3 shape default rectangular); See also {matci}, {tapla}, {plita}. kargu gismu x_1 (object/commodity/property/event) is costly/expensive/dear to x_2 by standard x_3. x_1 may be a specific object, a commodity (mass), an event, or a property; pedantically, for objects/commodities, this is sumti-raising from ownership of the object/commodity (= {poskargu} for unambiguous semantics). See also {vamji}, {dirba}, {vajni}, {jdima}, {pleji}, {canja}, {jerna}, {jinga}, {jemna}, {sfasa}, {vecnu}. karli gismu x_1 is a collar/ring/belt/band around/surrounding x_2 made of material x_3. Also sphincter. See also {sruri}, {djine}. karni gismu x_1 is a journal/periodical/magazine/[newspaper] with content x_2 published by x_3 for audience x_4. x_2 may be a subject, but not all journals have a single subject; all have some sort of principle defining what is included, so this need not be a list. See also {papri}, {pelji}, {tcidu}. katci experimental gismu x_1 is turned on / activated / operational for function x_2 Syn. {akti}. Turned off = {nalkatci}, to turn on (agentive) = {katcygau}, to turn off (agentive) = {nalkatcygau}. Also see {tolpo'u}. katna gismu -ka'a- x_1 (tool/blade/force) cuts [through]/splits/divides x_2 (object) into pieces x_3. For x_1 force, it is a force acting as a blade, not acting upon a blade; agentive cutting (= {ka'argau}, {ka'arzu'e}). (cf. {kakpa}, {sraku} for cutting into without division; {plixa}, {dakfu}, {jinci}, {porpi}, {spofu}, {tunta}, {xrani}, {fatri}, {fendi}, {balre}, {dilcu}) kavbu gismu -kav- x_1 captures/catches/apprehends/seizes/nabs x_2 with trap/restraint x_3. Catch something thrown (= {rerkavbu}). See also {jersi}, {kalte}, {pinfu}, {sisku}, se {rinju}. kazra experimental gismu x_1 is quantum mechanical in property x_2 with behavior/traits/result x_3; x_1 demonstrates quantum weirdness/quantum mechanical nature. For "quantumness", use {kamkazra}. Proposed short rafsi: -kaz-. See also: {kantu}, {namra}, {klaso}, {slabu}, {mairsau} (physically behaves expectedly/familiarly, normally; displays no physical weirdness/exoticness), {cizra}, {maircizra} (physically behaves unexpectedly; displays physical weirdness/exoticness), {cizyfau} (exotic event/phenomenon/signal), {cizmai} ((physically) exotic material/matter/substance), {cizykantu} (new/exotic/unknown/unfamiliar particle/quanton), {cizratni} (exotic atom/bound state), {rartni}. kecti gismu -kec- -ke'i- x_1 (person) pities/feels sorry for x_2 (person) about x_3 (abstraction). See also {cinmo}, {xendo}. kekli experimental gismu x_1 is kek (laughable in a sarcastic manner) in aspect x_2 (ka). Joke gismu. Proposed rafsi: -kek-. Therefore, "top kek" is {kekrai}. kelci gismu -kel- -kei- x_1 [agent] plays with plaything/toy x_2. Play game (= {ci'erkei}), play competitively (= {jvikei}). See also {jivna}, {jinga}, {zdile}. kelvo gismu -ke'o- x_1 is x_2 degree(s) Kelvin [metric unit] in temperature (default is 1) by standard x_3. See also {gradu}, {centi}, {decti}, {dekto}, {femti}, {gigdo}, {gocti}, {gotro}, {kilto}, {megdo}, {mikri}, {milti}, {nanvi}, {petso}, {picti}, {terto}, {xatsi}, {xecto}, {xexso}, {zepti}, {zetro}. kenka experimental gismu k_1 is a quantity of cake/torte/tart/pie/flan made of/containing ingredients k_2, prepared according to method k_3. Cf. {titnanba}, {jupypesxu}, {rutytisna} kenra gismu -ken- x_1 is a cancer [malignant disease] in x_2. See also {bilma}, {mikce}, {spita}. kensa gismu -kes- x_1 is outer space near/associated with celestial body/region x_2. See also {canlu}, {munje}, {terdi}, {tsani}. kerfa gismu -kre- x_1 is a/the hair/fur [body-part] of x_2 at body location x_3. See also {skapi}, {sunla}, {pimlu}. kerlo gismu -ker- x_1 is a/the ear [body-part] of x_2; [metaphor: sensory apparatus, information gathering]. (adjective:) x_1 is aural. See also {kanla}, {savru}, {smaji}, {tirna}, {ractu}. kesri experimental gismu x_1 (property of x_2) is a stereotype of x_2 (object/set), held by x_3 Does not necessarily carry a negative connotation. Stereotypes are, basically, the characteristics that come to one's mind when they imagine a particular object, regardless of actual commonality. e.g. Many people stereotypically think of roses as red, even though there are plenty of roses that aren't red. See {sei'i}, {lemkai}, {le'e} ketco gismu -ket- -tco- x_1 reflects South American culture/nationality/geography in aspect x_2. See also {merko}, {xispo}, {brazo}, {gento}, {spano}. ketsu experimental gismu x_1 is a pterosaur of subtaxon/type/genus/species/variety/breed x_2 gismu version of {ketslau} (otherwise identical). See also: {dinso}, {dinsauru}, {piknofibre}, {ketslau}, {reksa}. kevna gismu -kev- -ke'a- x_1 is a cavity/hole/hollow/cavern in x_2; x_1 is concave within x_2; x_2 is hollow at locus x_1. Also pit, depression, concavity; hollow (= {selke'a}). See also {fenra}, {kunti}, {canlu}, {canko}, {galxe}, {tubnu}. kibro experimental gismu x_1 pertains to the internet/cyberspace in aspect x_2. Proposed by xorxes. Short rafsi -kib-. Cf. {mujysamseltcana}. kicne gismu -kic- -ki'e- x_1 cushions x_2 with material x_3; x_1 is a cushion/pillow/pad [for x_2] of padding material x_3. See also {ckana}, {matci}. kijno gismu -kij- x_1 is a quantity of/contains/is made of oxygen (O); [metaphor: supporting life/combustion]. See also {jelca}, {vacri}, {vasxu}. kilto gismu -ki'o- x_1 is a thousand [1000; 10^3] of x_2 in dimension/aspect x_3 (default is units). See also {grake}, {mitre}, {snidu}, {stero}, {delno}, {molro}, {kelvo}, {xampo}, {gradu}, {litce}, {merli}, {centi}, {decti}, {dekto}, {femti}, {gigdo}, {gocti}, {gotro}, {megdo}, {mikri}, {milti}, {nanvi}, {petso}, {picti}, {terto}, {xatsi}, {xecto}, {xexso}, {zepti}, {zetro}, {minli} kinda experimental gismu x_1 is kinda like x_2 in property x_3 This is a joke word. Its main use is in the tanru {kinda} {sorta} kinli gismu -kil- x_1 is sharp/keen at locus x_2. See also {balre}, {dakfu}, {jesni}. kisto gismu -kis- x_1 reflects Pakistani/Pashto culture/nationality/language in aspect x_2. See also {xurdo}. klaji gismu -laj- x_1 is a street/avenue/lane/drive/cul-de-sac/way/alley/[road] at x_2 accessing x_3. Also corridor; not typically a route between points, but offers access to sites along it. See also {naxle}, {panka}, {pluta}, {dargu}. klaku gismu -kak- x_1 weeps/cries tears x_2 about/for reason x_3 (event/state). See also {badri}, {krixa}. klama gismu -kla- x_1 comes/goes to destination x_2 from origin x_3 via route x_4 using means/vehicle x_5. Also travels, journeys, moves, leaves to ... from ...; x_1 is a traveller; (x_4 as a set includes points at least sufficient to constrain the route relevantly). See also {cadzu}, {bajra}, {marce}, {vofli}, {litru}, {muvdu}, {cpare}, cmavo list {ka'a}, {pluta}, {bevri}, {farlu}, {limna}, {vitke}. klani gismu -lai- x_1 is a quantity quantified/measured/enumerated by x_2 (quantifier) on scale x_3 (si'o). Also count. See also cmavo list {la'u}, {namcu}. klesi gismu -kle- -lei- x_1 (mass/si'o) is a class/category/subgroup/subset within x_2 with defining property x_3 (ka). Also taxon, type, kind, classification, species, genus, family, order, phylum. See also cmavo list {le'a}, {cmima}, {jutsi}, {ciste}, {girzu}, {lanzu}, {vrici}. kliki experimental gismu x_1 (text, sound) is a click sound See {sa'ei}, {mosra} klina gismu -kli- x_1 (object/medium) is clear/transparent/without obstacle to in-the-clear x_2 [transmission]. Also lucid; x_2 remains apparent/lucid/clear (figurative use for 'understandable' is discouraged, better expressed as = {filseljmi} or {filsmu}). (cf. {kandi}, {zunti} - {nalzu'i} is better for 'unhindered') kliru gismu x_1 is a quantity of/contains/is made of halogen of type x_2 [chlorine, fluorine, iodine, etc.]. Also bromine; default chlorine. See also {xukmi}. kliti gismu -kit- x_1 is a quantity of/contains/is made of clay [moist, clammy dirt] of composition including x_2. See also {dertu}, {pesxu}, {staku}. klupe gismu -lup- -lu'e- x_1 is a screw [fastener] for purpose x_2, threads [pitch, material] x_3, frame [size, material] x_4. Also bolt. See also {korcu}, {sarlu}, {tutci}. kluza gismu -luz- x_1 (obj.) is loose/bloused/not tight on x_2 (obj.) at locus x_3. See also {tagji}, {trati}, {rinju}. kobli gismu -kob- -ko'i- x_1 is a quantity of cabbage/lettuce/leafy vegetable of species/strain x_2. See also {stagi}. kogno experimental gismu x_1 (entity) is cognitive in that it allows knowing x_2 (proposition) See also {facki}, {djuno}. kojna gismu -koj- -ko'a- x_1 is a corner/point/at-least-3-dimensional [solid] angle [shape/form] in/on x_2, of material x_3. Also apex; a corner exists on three dimensions but need not be limited to points; it suggests a discontinuity in slope in some direction; i.e. in some planar cross-section. See also {jipno}, {konju}, {bliku}, {fanmo}, {jganu}, {krasi}. kokso experimental gismu x_1 is a coconut of variety/cultivar x_2 See also {cidja}, {rutrkoko} kolme gismu -kol- -ko'e- x_1 is a quantity of/contains/is made of coal/peat/anthracite/bitumen from source x_2. See also {tabno}, {tarla}. komcu gismu -kom- x_1 is a comb [many-needled shape] of material x_2 with tines/needles x_3. See also {julne}, {forca}, {burcu}. konju gismu -kon- -ko'u- x_1 is a cone [shape/form] of material x_2 with vertex x_3. Also ellipse, ellipsoid (= {konclupa}). See also {jesni}, {djine}, {sovda}, {kojna}, {jganu}. korbi gismu -kor- -koi- x_1 is an edge/margin/border/curb/boundary of x_2 next-to/bordering-on x_3. See also cmavo list {koi}, {greku}, {mlana}, {jimte}, {ctebi}, {bartu}. korcu gismu -kro- (adjective:) x_1 is bent/crooked/not straight or direct/[twisted]/folded. See also {cinje}, {klupe}, {kruvi}, {polje}, {sarlu}, {sirji}, {bargu}, {genxu}. korka gismu -kok- x_1 is a quantity of/contains/is made of cork/bark from tree/species x_2; [material]. See also {tricu}, {calku}, {skapi}, {stagi}. korvo experimental gismu s_1 is a crow/raven of species s_2. See {cipnrkorvo} for a non-experimental version of this word. kosmu experimental gismu x_1 (abstraction) is a purpose/use of x_2 (object or event), attributed by x_3 Place structure has been inverted from the original version to match {krinu}. Syn. {erpi}. See {ko'au}, {terpli}, {terzu'e}, {terfi'i} kosta gismu -kos- x_1 is a coat/jacket/sweater/cloak/[cape/shawl/pullover] [extra outer garment] of material x_2. See also {pastu}, {sunla}, {taxfu}. krali experimental gismu x_1 (NU) is a legal/moral entitlement of x_2 (individual/mass) by standard x_3. x_2 is a legal person. Normative principles, variously construed as legal, social, or moral freedoms or entitlements. {rarkrali} for "natural rights and {flakrali} for "legal rights"; {xuskrali} for "claim rights" and {zifkrali} for "liberty rights"; {srakrali} for "positive rights" and {ri'urkrali} for "negative rights"; {sepkrali} for "individual rights" and {gumkrali} for "group rights"; {selcemkrali} for "civil rights" and {seljeckrali} for "political rights"; {jiknykrali} for "economic rights", {jikykrali} for "social rights", and {klukrali} for "cultural rights"; {remkrali} for "human rights" and {dalkrali} for "animal rights"; perhaps {kralyxai} for "violate". Cf. {selfla}, {selzi'e}, {terzi'e}, {selzau}, {selpikta}. kramu gismu x_1 is x_2 local area unit(s) [non-metric] (default 1) by standard x_3, x_4 subunits. (additional subunit places may be added as x_5, x_6, ...); See also {rupnu}, {fepni}, {dekpu}, {gutci}, {minli}, {merli}, {bunda}. krasi gismu -kra- x_1 (site/event) is a source/start/beginning/origin of x_2 (object/event/process). Also root (figurative sense); (adjective:) x_1 is initial. See also {fanmo}, cmavo list {ra'i}, {sabji}, {cfari}, {jipno}, {traji}, {kojna}, {genja}, {jicmu}, {sitna}, {jinto}. krati gismu -ka'i- x_1 represents/is an agent/proxy/stands-in for [absent] x_2 in matter(s)/function(s) x_3. Also: on behalf of. See also cmavo list {ka'i}, {jansu}, {catni}, {vipsi}, {pulji}. krefu gismu -ref- -ke'u- x_1 (event) is the x_3'rd recurrence/repetition of x_2 (abstract); x_2 happens again in [form] x_1. Also case, another, instance, different, other, time, occasion. See also {fukpi}, {rapli}, {cafne}, {fasnu}, {xruti}. krici gismu -kri- x_1 believes [regardless of evidence/proof] belief/creed x_2 (du'u) is true/assumed about subject x_3. "without evidence" refers to objective external evidence; also gives credence, has conviction. See also {jinvi}, {djuno}, {censa}, {cevni}, {lijda}, {makfa}, {malsi}, {senpi}, {birti}. krili gismu x_1 is a quantity of/contains/is made of crystal of composition x_2 in form/arrangement x_3. x_2: composition including x_2, which need not be complete specification. See also {jemna}, {bisli}. krinu gismu -rin- -ki'u- x_1 (event/state) is a reason/justification/explanation for/causing/permitting x_2 (event/state). See also {ciksi}, {rinka}, {nibli}, {mukti}, se {jalge}, te {zukte}, cmavo list {ki'u}, {bapli}. krixa gismu -kix- -ki'a- x_1 cries out/yells/howls sound x_2; x_1 is a crier. See also {klaku}, {bacru}. kruca gismu -kuc- x_1 intersects/crosses/traverses x_2 at locus x_3. See also {cripu}, {ragve}. kruji gismu -ruj- x_1 is made of/contains/is a quantity of cream/emulsion/puree [consistency] of composition x_2. [x_2: composition including x_2, which need not be complete specification]]; See also {ladru}, {matne}. kruvi gismu -ruv- -kru- x_1 is a curve/turn/bend in x_2, at locus x_3, and defined by set of points/properties x_4. (adjective:) x_1 is curved; (x_4 as a set of points is sufficiently specified to identify the relevant properties of the bend). See also {korcu}, {bargu}, {genxu}, {linji}, {sirji}. kubli gismu -kub- x_1 is a cube/regular polyhedron/polygon of dimensions x_2 (def. 3), surfaces/sides x_3 (def. 6). (cf. {kurfa} - needed for 'cube', {bliku} for a physical object; {tanbo}, {tapla}, {tarmi}) kucli gismu x_1 is curious/wonders about/is interested in/[inquisitive about] x_2 (object/abstract). Inquisitive (= {retkucli}). See also {manci}, {sisku}, se {cinri}. kufra gismu -kuf- x_1 feels comfort/is comfortable with conditions/environmental property(ies) x_2. See also {cinmo}. kukte gismu -kuk- x_1 is delicious/tasty/delightful to observer/sense x_2 [person, or sensory activity]. x_1 is a delicacy. See also {gusta}, {ralci}, {vrusi}, {cpina}. kulnu gismu -klu- x_1 [mass of ideas, customs, skills, arts] is culture of nation/ethos x_2 (mass); x_1 is ethnic. (note that x_2 is NOT individual; culture is what is shared among people and is not an individual trait). See also cmavo list {ka'u}, cmavo list {ku'u}, {natmi}, {cecmu}. kumfa gismu -kum- -ku'a- x_1 is a room of/in structure x_2 surrounded by partitions/walls/ceiling/floor x_3 (mass/jo'u). Also chamber. See also {bitmu}, {canlu}, {zdani}. kumte gismu x_1 is a camel/llama/alpaca/vicuna/dromedary of species/breed x_2. Llama (= {tcokumte}), Bactrian camel (= {zdokumte}); Arabian camel/dromedary (= {rabykumte}). See also {sunla}, {kanla}, {xirma}, {xasli}. kunra gismu -kun- x_1 is/contains/is made from a mineral/ore of type/metal x_2 mined from location/lode/mine x_3. See also {jinme}, {bisli}, {rokci}, {jemna}. kunti gismu -kut- x_1 [container] is empty/vacant of x_2 [material]; x_1 is hollow. Also vacuum (= kunti be roda/so'ada). See also {culno}, {tisna}, {claxu}, {canlu}, {kevna}, {setca}. kurfa gismu -kur- x_1 is a right-angled shape/form defined by set of vertices x_2, dimensions x_3 (default 2). Also rectangle, square, rectilinear; square (= {kubykurfa}, {pitkubykurfa}), cube (= {kurkubli}), rectangle (= {clakurfa}), rhombus/diamond (= {sa'orkurfa}, {sa'orpitkubli}). See also {bliku}, {kubli}, {tapla}, {salpo}, {tarmi}. kurji gismu -kuj- -ku'i- x_1 takes-care-of/looks after/attends to/provides for/is caretaker for x_2 (object/event/person). Also tends, cares for, keeps; x_1 is a keeper/custodian of x_2. See also {jundi}, {cinri}, {prami}, {raktu}, {zgana}. kurki gismu x_1 is bitter/acrid/sharply disagreeable to observer/sense x_2. See also {titla}, {slari}. kuspe gismu -kup- -ku'e- x_1 ranges/extends/spans/persists/reaches across/over interval/gap/area/scope/extent/range x_2. Also continues. See also {ranji}, {renvi}, {tcena}, {bancu}, {cripu}, {ragve}, {vorme}, {canko}, {bitmu}, {sirji}, {jbini}, {jimte}, {preja}. kusru gismu -kus- x_1 (person) is cruel/mean/unkind to victim x_2. See also {xendo}, {jursa}. labno gismu x_1 is a wolf/lupine of species/breed x_2. See also {gerku}. lacni experimental gismu x_1 is an eyewear used/worn by x_2 serving purpose x_3. It is a frame worn in front of the eyes and bears or does not bear transparent/semi-transparent/non-transparent shields for visual correction, eye protection, fashion, or entertainment. The shields are not necessarily lenses. Cf. {le'otci} or {le'orlacni} for a corrective type, which may include {tidlacni} for reading glasses and {xrelacni} for bifocal and trifocal glasses; {badlacni} for a protective type, which may include {srulacni} for goggles and {solylacni} for sunglasses; {jadlacni} for fashion glasses, which may include {rekmeclacni} for rimless glasses and solylacni; {mincimdylacni} for 3D glasses. lacpu gismu -lap- -cpu- x_1 pulls/tugs/draws/drags x_2 by handle/at locus x_3. Gravity (= ka {maicpu}, {maircpukai}). See also {catke}, {sakci}, {cokcu}. lacri gismu -lac- x_1 relies/depends/counts on/trusts x_2 to bring about/ensure/maintain x_3 (event/state). See also {minde}, {nitcu}, {tinbe}. ladru gismu -lad- x_1 is made of/contains/is a quantity of milk from source x_2; (adjective:) x_1 is lactic/dairy. See also {lanbi}, {mabru}, {tatru}, {cirla}, {kruji}. lafti gismu -laf- x_1 (force) lifts/applies raising/supporting force to x_2 at locus x_3 in gravity well x_4. (x_1 may be an abstract); verb lift/raise/elevate (= {lafmuvgau}). See also {farlu}, {plipe}. lakne gismu -la'e- x_1 (event/state/property) is probable/likely under conditions x_2. See also {cumki}, {jinzi}, {kampu}, {tcaci}, {cunso}, {cafne}, {fadni}, {cnano}. lakse gismu -lak- x_1 is quantity of wax [substance especially soft/moldable when warm] from source x_2. Also paraffin. See also {bifce}, {ranti}, {bidju}. laldo experimental gismu x_1 is old/aged [relatively long in elapsed duration] by standard x_2 (= {tolci'o}) See {citno}, {slabu} lalxu gismu -la'u- x_1 is a lake/lagoon/pool at site/within land mass x_2. See also {daplu}, {djacu}, {rirxe}, {xamsi}, {zbani}. lamji gismu -lam- -la'i- x_1 is adjacent/beside/next to/in contact with x_2 in property/sequence x_3 in direction x_4. Also touching, contiguous, against. See also {zvati}, {cpana}, {jibni}, {diklo}, {stuzi}, {bartu}, {jbini}. lanbi gismu x_1 is a quantity of protein/albumin of type x_2 composed of amino acids (sequence/jo'u) x_3 . See also {ladru}, {sovda}. lanci gismu x_1 is a flag/banner/standard of/symbolizing x_2 with pattern(s) x_3 on material x_4. See also {gugde}, {jecta}. landa experimental gismu x_1 is the ISO-named country of people x_2 with ISO-name x_1, according to rule/specification x_3 See also: {gugde}, {jviso}. lanka gismu x_1 is a basket with contents x_2, woven from material x_3. See also {vasru}, {baktu}. lanli gismu -lal- x_1 analyzes/examines-in-detail x_2 by method/technique/system x_3 [process/activity]. See also {catlu}, {zgana}, {jarco}, {pensi}, {pinka}. lanme gismu -lan- x_1 is a sheep/[lamb/ewe/ram] of species/breed x_2 of flock x_3. See also {kanba}, {sunla}. lante gismu x_1 is a can/tightly sealed/pre-sealed container for perishable contents x_2, made of x_3. See also {botpi}, {baktu}, {tinci}. lanxe gismu -lax- x_1 is in balance/equilibrium under forces x_2 (mass). (cf. {midju}, {nutli}; {fapro} for balancing/opposing forces, {nutli}) lanzu gismu -laz- x_1 (mass) is a family with members including x_2 bonded/tied/joined according to standard x_3. Also clan, tribe; x_2 is in x_1, a member of x_1 ({selylanzu} for reordered places); relative (= {lazmi'u} - xy mintu y'y leka cmima da poi lanzu). See also {natmi}, {cmima}, {girzu}, {jutsi}, {klesi}. larcu gismu -lar- x_1 (process) is an art [creative application] of craft/skill x_2 (idea/activity). (adjective:) x_1 is artistic. See also {finti}, {zbasu}, {stati}. larva experimental gismu x_1 is an organism x_2 at its larva stage of development See also {sovda}, {altrici}, {inmago} lasna gismu -la'a- x_1 (agent) fastens/connects/attaches/binds/lashes x_2 to x_3 with fastener x_4. No implication that result is considered a single object; although x_2 and x_3 may be reversible, x_3 may be used for the substrate, the fixed/larger object to which x_2 becomes attached. See also {jorne}, {fenso}, {jgena}, {batke}, {dinko}, {kansa}. lastu gismu x_1 is a quantity of/contains/is made of brass [copper/zinc alloy] of composition including x_2. (adjective:) x_1 is brazen). See also {jinme}, {ransu}, {tunka}. latmo gismu -la'o- x_1 reflects Latin/Roman/Romance culture/empire/language in aspect x_2. See also {ropno}, {fraso}, {spano}, {xispo}, {itlo}, {gomsi}. latna gismu x_1 is a lotus, plant/flower/herb of species/strain x_2 symbolizing x_3 to culture/religion x_4. See also {budjo}, {censa}, {lijda}, {spati}. lazni gismu x_1 (person) is lazy/avoiding work/effort concerning action x_2. See also {nejni}, {vreta}, {gunka}. lebna gismu -leb- -le'a- x_1 takes/gets/gains/obtains/seizes/[removes] x_2 (object/property) from x_3 (possessor). Also confiscate, appropriate. Acquire with volition such that x_1 gains possession; x_3 is possessor and not merely source, alienation is implied. (cf. {punji}, {cpacu} where volition or previous possession is not necessarily implied, {vimcu} for alienation where x_1 need not gain possession, {canci}, {cliva}) lelxe experimental gismu x_1 is a lily [Lilium] of species/strain x_2 cf. {rozgu}. lel- is short rafsi lenga experimental gismu x_1 is a speakable language used by persons x_2 A narrower term than {bangu}, is limited to speakable, usable in dialogues languages used by persons ({lo} {prenu}). Doesn't include languages with information transferred one-way (languages of road signs), doesn't include computer programming languages that are not speakable between two persons. lenjo gismu -len- -le'o- x_1 is a lens/glass [focussing shape/form] focussing x_2 to focus/foci x_3 by means/material x_4. (adjective:) x_1 is optical; focussing may be optical or otherwise, hence x_2 which may be light, sound, X-ray, etc., default is light/optical lens; ka is refraction. See also {kacma}, {minra}. lenku gismu -lek- x_1 is cold/cool by standard x_2. See also {glare}, {bisli}. lerci gismu -lec- x_1 (event) is late by standard x_2. See also {clira}. lerfu gismu -ler- -le'u- x_1 (la'e zo BY/word-bu) is a letter/digit/symbol in alphabet/character-set x_2 representing x_3. Also x_1 glyph, rune, character (also me'o BY/word-bu), x_2 symbol set; (adjective:) x_1 is alphabetic/symbolic; "letteral" used by analogy with "numeral"; sinxa is the more generic symbol. See also {mifra}, {namcu}, {sinxa}, {pandi}. libjo gismu -lib- x_1 reflects Libyan culture/nationality in aspect x_2. See also {friko}, {xrabo}, {muslo}. lidne gismu -li'e- x_1 precedes/leads x_2 in sequence x_3; x_1 is former/preceding/previous; x_2 is latter/following. Also x_1 before, forerunner; leading, as in 'leading indicators'; x_2 after, trailing (= {selyli'e} for reordered places). See also cmavo list {li'e}, {balvi}, {ralju}, {rebla}, {purci} for time sequence, {jersi}, {porsi}, {jatna}, {farna}. lifri gismu -lif- -fri- x_1 [person/passive/state] undergoes/experiences x_2 (event/experience); x_2 happens to x_1. Also has/have (of events/experiences); (adjective:) x_1 is empirical; suggests passive undergoing but does not exclude active (per zukte) intent; a deserved experience: reward or punishment (= {jernyfri}, {zanjernyfri}, {maljernyfri}). See also cmavo list {ri'i}, {jmive}, {fasnu}, {renvi}. lijda gismu -jda- x_1 is a religion of believers including x_2 sharing common beliefs/practices/tenets including x_3. Also mythos, creed, traditional beliefs, x_2 people(s), adherents; (adjective:) x_1, x_2, x_3 are religious/ecclesiastic in nature; x_2 is a believer in/of x_1, an adherent/follower of x_1 (= {seljda} for reordered places); x_2 is a practitioner of x_3 (= {selterjda} for reordered places); x_3 is a tenet/belief/ritual/creed of x_1/x_2 (= {terjda} for reordered places); priest/clerical (= {jdaca'i}, {jdaka'i}, {jdaja'a}); organized church/religion (= {be'ejda}); congregation (= {jdabe'e}, {jdagri}). See also {budjo}, {censa}, {cevni}, {crida}, {dadjo}, {jegvo}, {krici}, {latna}, {malsi}, {marde}, {muslo}, {pruxi}, {ranmi}, {ritli}, {xriso}, {zekri}. limfa experimental gismu x_1 is a lymph of body x_2 See also {ciblu} limna gismu -lim- x_1 (agent) swims in fluid x_2. See also {djacu}, {fulta}, {klama}, {litru}. lince experimental gismu x_1 is a lynx of species x_2 lindi gismu -lid- x_1 is lightning/electrical arc/thunderbolt striking at/extending to x_2 from x_3. Also thunder (= {lidysna}). See also {dikca}. linga experimental gismu x_1 is the ISO-named language of people x_2 with ISO-name x_1, according to rule/specification x_3 gismu version of {lingua}. See also: {jviso}, {lengua}, {bangu}. linji gismu -lij- -li'i- x_1 is a line/among lines [1-dimensional shape/form] defined by set of points x_2. Ray/vector ({farli'i} or {porli'i}). See also {kruvi}, {sirji}, {jganu}, {kantu}, {mokca}. linsi gismu -lin- x_1 is a length of chain/links of material x_2 with link properties x_3. See also {skori}. linto gismu -li'o- x_1 is light in mass/weight by standard x_2. (cf. junta, tilju; se xalbo, kandi for metaphor) lisri gismu -lis- x_1 is a story/tale/yarn/narrative about plot/subject/moral x_2 by storyteller x_3 to audience x_4. Also legend; a narrative need not be fictional; x_2 may be merely a convention rather than a subject; also x_3 tells/recounts story/tale x_1 about x_2 to x_4 (= {selterlisri} for place reordering); note that the storyteller need not be the author. See also {ranmi}, {cfika}, {skicu}, {prosa}, {pemci}. liste gismu -ste- x_1 (physical object) is a list/catalog/register of sequence/set x_2 in order x_3 in medium x_4. Also roll, log. (x_2 is completely specified); (cf. {porsi}, {girzu}, {cmima} for mental objects wherein order is of varying importance; some manifested order is intrinsic to a physical list, but the specific order may be incidental and not intentional/purposeful) litce gismu -lic- x_1 is x_2 liter(s) [metric unit] in volume (default is 1) by standard x_3. See also {merli}, {grake}, {mitre}, {dekpu}, {centi}, {decti}, {dekto}, {femti}, {gigdo}, {gocti}, {gotro}, {kilto}, {megdo}, {mikri}, {milti}, {nanvi}, {petso}, {picti}, {terto}, {xatsi}, {xecto}, {xexso}, {zepti}, {zetro}. litki gismu -lik- x_1 is liquid/fluid, of composition/material including x_2, under conditions x_3. Conditions include temperature and pressure. See also {cilmo}, {djacu}, {lumci}, {runta}, {pambe}, {sudga}, {gapci}, {sligu}, {flecu}, {jduli}. litru gismu -li'u- x_1 travels/journeys/goes/moves via route x_2 using means/vehicle x_3; x_1 is a traveller. (x_2 as a set includes points at least sufficient to constrain the route relevantly); See also {bajra}, {cadzu}, {cpare}, {tcana}, {klama}, {cliva}, {pluta}, {limna}, {muvdu}. livga gismu x_1 is a/the liver [body-part] of x_2. See also {rango}, {betfu}. livla gismu -lil- x_1 is a fuel/energy-source for powering x_2. See also {nejni}, {xaksu}, {jelca}. logji gismu -loj- x_1 [rules/methods] is a logic for deducing/concluding/inferring/reasoning to/about x_2 (du'u). Also (adjective:) x_1, x_2 are logical. See also {nibli}. loglo experimental gismu x_1 pertains to Loglan language/culture in aspect x_2 lojbo gismu -lob- -jbo- x_1 reflects [Loglandic]/Lojbanic language/culture/nationality/community in aspect x_2. Pre-Lojban forms of Loglan (= {dzejbo}). See also {bangu}, {logji}. loldi gismu -lol- -loi- x_1 is a floor/bottom/ground of x_2. Floor/level/story of a building/edifice (= {setloi}, {dijysenta}). See also {bitmu}, {drudi}, {dertu}, {dizlo}, {cnita}, {zbepi}, {sarji}, {serti}. lorxu gismu -lor- -lo'u- x_1 is a fox [bushy-tailed wild dog/canine] of species/breed x_2. See also {gerku}. lubno gismu -lu'o- x_1 reflects Lebanese culture/nationality in aspect x_2. See also {xrabo}. lujvo gismu -luv- -jvo- x_1 (text) is a compound predicate word with meaning x_2 and arguments x_3 built from metaphor x_4. See also {stura}, {cmavo}, {gismu}, {rafsi}, {smuni}. luksi experimental gismu x_1 is electric [adjective] producing electric field x_2. Proposed rafsi -luk-. See also {maksi}, {dikca}. lumci gismu -lum- -lu'i- x_1 (agent) washes/cleanses x_2 of soil/contaminant x_3 in/with cleaning material(s) x_4. Agentless washing/cleansing (= {cuvbi'o}, {jisybi'o}). See also {djacu}, {jinru}, {litki}, {zbabu}, {jinsa}, {curve}. lunbe gismu -lub- x_1 is bare/naked/nude; x_1 is without cover/clothes/[protection]. See also {taxfu}, {bandu}. lunra gismu -lur- x_1 is Earth's moon (default); x_1 is a major natural satellite/moon of planet x_2. See also {plini}, {solri}, {terdi}, {mluni}. lunsa gismu -lus- x_1 condenses/liquefies on/into x_2 at temperature x_3, pressure x_4; x_1 is dew/condensate on x_2. See also {cilmo}, {dunja}, {febvi}, {runme}, {bumru}. luska experimental gismu x_1 is a mollusc of species x_2 x1 is a soft-bodied invertebrate of the phylum Mollusca, typically with a hard shell of one or more pieces. lusto experimental gismu x_1 is/reflects/pertain to Middle Eastern/Near Eastern culture/geography/region/language/society/religion in aspect x_2 For race: {lustytutle}. See also {xrabo}, {alcamacrike} mabla gismu -mal- x_1 is execrable/deplorable/wretched/shitty/awful/rotten/miserable/contemptible/crappy/inferior/low-quality in property x_2 by standard x_3; x_1 stinks/sucks in aspect x_2 according to x_3. Bloody (British sense), fucking, shit, goddamn. See also {zabna}, {xlali}, {palci}, {dapma}, {funca}, {ganti}, {ganxo}, {gletu}, {gutra}, {kalci}, {pinca}, {pinji}, {plibu}, {vibna}, {vlagi}, {zargu}. mabru gismu -mab- x_1 is a mammal/'animal'/beast of species x_2. See also {danlu}, {ladru}, {tatru}, {ractu}, {xanto}, {xarju}. macnu gismu -cnu- x_1 (event/action/process) is manual [not automatic] in function x_2 under conditions x_3. See also {zmiku}, {jitro}. majga experimental gismu x_1 (number/quantity; contextless default: li ma'u .a li no) is the (rest/inertial) mass of x_2 (object) in units x_3 See also: {grake}, {junta}, {nonmajga}. makcu gismu -ma'u- x_1 is mature/ripe/fully-grown/adult in development-quality x_2 (ka). See also {cifnu}, {ninmu}, {verba}, {banro}, {farvi}, {nanmu}. makfa gismu -maf- x_1 is magic/supernatural/sorcery/witchcraft/wizardry to x_2, performed by person/force/deity x_3. See also {krici}, {manci}. maksi gismu -mak- x_1 is magnetic [adjective] producing magnetic field x_2. See also {dikca}, {trina}, {xlura}. malsi gismu -mas- x_1 is a temple/church/sanctuary/synagogue/shrine of religion x_2 at location/serving area x_3. x_2 may be event of form (... worships/pays/respect to ...), hence (metaphorically extending to) monument (= {mojmalsi}, {si'armalsi}). See also {cevni}, {krici}, {lijda}, {ritli}. mamta gismu -mam- x_1 is a mother of x_2; x_1 bears/mothers/acts maternally toward x_2; [not necessarily biological]. See also {patfu}, {sovda}, {rirni}, {rorci}, {tarbi}, {famti}, {bersa}, {jbena}. manci gismu -mac- x_1 feels wonder/awe/marvels about x_2. See also {cinmo}, {makfa}, {kucli}, {spaji}, {cinri}, {banli}, {sisku}. manfo gismu x_1 (object/event) is uniform/homogeneous in property x_2 (ka). See also {prane}, {curve}, {ranji}, {vitno}, {stodi}, {dikni}, {sampu}, {traji}. mango experimental gismu x_1 is a mango [fruit] of species/variety x_2. {rutrmango} is the non-experimental synonym of “mango”. {ricrmango} for “mango tree”. manku gismu -man- x_1 is dark/lacking in illumination. (cf. {blabi}, {gusni}, {ctino}; use {kandi} or {xekri} with colors, {ctino}) manri gismu -mar- x_1 is a frame of reference/standard for observing/measuring/determining x_2, with/by rules x_3. (x_1 may be object or si'o idea); See also cmavo list {ma'i}, {ckilu}, {merli}, {pajni}, {cimde}, {jdice}, {marde}. mansa gismu x_1 satisfies evaluator x_2 in property (ka)/state x_3. See also {pajni}. manti gismu x_1 is an ant of species/breed x_2. See also {cinki}, {jalra}. mapku gismu -map- x_1 is a cap/hat/crown/helmet/piece of headgear [head-top garment] of material x_2. See also {taxfu}, {stedu}, {drudi}. mapni gismu x_1 is a quantity of/contains/is made of cotton [type of fabric/material]. See also {bukpu}. mapra experimental gismu x_1 is a quantity of fluff of composition/structure/characterization/substance x_2; x_1 is fluffy/airy/soft/fuzzy in texture Visual and tactile. Most likely is malleable, but this word has no such implications inherently; porousness or foaminess is likewise not implied. Might also include "cushiony", "cotton-like", "wool-like"; a fractal nature might be present. For fuzziness: not necessarily hairy or furry, but must be soft; not bristly (which implies stiffness and hardness). See also: {ranti}, {rufsu}, {xutla}, {panje}, {dilnu}, {mapni}, {sunla}, {fonmo}, {jduli}, {pesxu}, {marji}. mapti gismu -mat- x_1 fits/matches/suits/is compatible/appropriate/corresponds to/with x_2 in property/aspect x_3. See also {satci}, {tugni}, {sarxe}, {drani}, {tarmi}, {ckini}, {mintu}. marbi gismu -mra- x_1 is a shelter/haven/refuge/retreat/harbor for/protecting x_2 from danger/threat x_3. See also {bandu}, {ckape}, {snura}, {drudi}, {sepli}, {bitmu}, {gacri}. marce gismu -ma'e- x_1 is a vehicle/mode of transport carrying x_2 in/on surface/medium x_3, propelled by x_4. See also {klama}, {matra}, {bevri}, {bloti}, {carce}, {karce}, {sabnu}, {skiji}. marde gismu -mad- x_1 are the ethics/morals/moral standards/ethical standards of x_2 (ind./mass) about situation x_3. x_1 will (typically) be an abstract, a rule or rules of behavior; also principles; also conscience (= {sezmarde}). See also {palci}, {vrude}, {lijda}, {manri}, {javni}, {tarti}, {zekri}. margu gismu -mag- x_1 is a quantity of/contains/made of mercury/quicksilver; [metaphor: fluid metal; temperature]. See also {jinme}. marji gismu -maj- -mai- x_1 is material/stuff/matter of type/composition including x_2 in shape/form x_3. Also (adjective:) x_1 is physical (one sense)/material. See also {morna}, {mucti}, {nejni}, {tarmi}, {dacti}. marna gismu x_1 is a quantity of hemp/marijuana/jute of species/strain x_2. See also {skori}, {tanko}, {sigja}, {xukmi}. marxa gismu -max- x_1 [force] mashes/crushes/squashes/smashes x_2 into pulp/mash/crumbs/deformed mass x_3. See also {daspo}, {pesxu}, {zalvi}, {bapli}. masno gismu -sno- x_1 is slow/sluggish at doing/being/bringing about x_2 (event/state). See also {sutra}. masti gismu -ma'i- x_1 is x_2 months in duration (default is 1 month) by month standard x_3. This month (= {cabma'i}); next month (= {bavla'ima'i}); last month (= {prula'ima'i}). See also {detri}, {djedi}, {jeftu}, {nanca}. matci gismu x_1 is a mat/pad/mattress/pallet [flat, soft, dense form] of material x_2. Also mattress = ({kicymatci}). See also {kicne}, {tapla}, {karda}, {ckana}. matli gismu x_1 is a quantity of/contains/is made of linen/flax [type of fabric/material]. See also {bukpu}. matne gismu x_1 is a quantity of/contains butter/oleo/margarine/shortening from source x_2. (adjective:) x_1 is buttery; an edible fat, solid but spreadable at normal temperatures; dairy butter (= {ladmatne}). See also {grasu}, {kruji}. matra gismu x_1 is a motor/engine, driving/propelling/providing power to x_2. See also {marce}, {minji}, {carce}. mavji gismu -mav- x_1 is a quantity of oats [grain] of species/strain x_2. See also {gurni}. maxri gismu -xri- x_1 is a quantity of wheat [grain] of species/strain x_2. See also {gurni}. mebri gismu -meb- x_1 is a/the brow/forehead [projecting flat/smooth head/body-part] of x_2. See also {stedu}, {flira}. megdo gismu -meg- x_1 is a million [10^6] of x_2 in dimension/aspect x_3 (default is units). See also {grake}, {mitre}, {snidu}, {stero}, {delno}, {molro}, {kelvo}, {xampo}, {gradu}, {litce}, {merli}, {centi}, {decti}, {dekto}, {femti}, {gigdo}, {gocti}, {gotro}, {kilto}, {mikri}, {milti}, {nanvi}, {petso}, {picti}, {terto}, {xatsi}, {xecto}, {xexso}, {zepti}, {zetro} mekso gismu -mek- -me'o- x_1 [quantifier/expression] is a mathematical expression interpreted under rules/convention x_2. See also {cmaci}, {dilcu}, {fancu}, {frinu}, {jalge}, {namcu}, {parbi}, {pilji}. melbi gismu -mel- -mle- x_1 is beautiful/pleasant to x_2 in aspect x_3 (ka) by aesthetic standard x_4. Also handsome, pretty, gorgeous, cute, comely, graceful. See also {pluka}, {xamgu}. meljo gismu -mej- x_1 reflects Malaysian/Malay culture/nationality/language in aspect x_2. See also {baxso}, {bindo}. melmi experimental gismu x_1 is a honey produced by x_2 menli gismu -men- x_1 is a mind/intellect/psyche/mentality/[consciousness] of body x_2. (adjective:) x_1 is mental/psychological/a mental phenomenon; multiple personalities (= so'i {menli}). See also {besna}, {morji}, {mucti}, {pensi}, {sanji}, {xanri}, {sevzi}, {xadni}. menre experimental gismu x_1 is/are among the referent(s) of x_2 See also {me}. mensi gismu -mes- -me'i- x_1 is a sister of/sororal to x_2 by bond/tie/standard/parent(s) x_3; [not necessarily biological]. See also {bruna}, {tunba}, {tamne}, {famti}. mentu gismu -met- -me'u- x_1 is x_2 minutes in duration (default is 1 minute) by standard x_3. See also {junla}, {cacra}, {snidu}, {tcika}. merko gismu -mer- x_1 pertains to USA/American culture/nationality/dialect in aspect x_2. See also {brito}, {bemro}, {ketco}, {xispo}, {glico}. merli gismu -mre- x_1 (agent) measures/evaluates x_2 [quantity] as x_3 units on scale x_4 (si'o), with accuracy x_5. See also {kancu}, {rupnu}, {fepni}, {dekpu}, {gutci}, {minli}, {bunda}, {ckilu}, {gradu}, {satci}, {centi}, {cimde}, {decti}, {dekto}, {femti}, {gigdo}, {gocti}, {gotro}, {kilto}, {kramu}, {litce}, {manri}, {megdo}, {mikri}, {milti}, {nanvi}, {petso}, {picti}, {terto}, {xatsi}, {xecto}, {xexso}, {zepti}, {zetro}. metfo experimental gismu x_1 (bridi) is a metaphor/figurative expression having literal meaning x_2 See {sidysmu}, {tanru}, {pevna}, {pe'a}, {ve} {lujvo}, {cimjvo} mexno gismu -mex- x_1 reflects Mexican culture/nationality in aspect x_2. See also {xispo}, {bemro}, {spano}. midju gismu -mij- x_1 is in/at the middle/center/midpoint/[is a focus] of x_2; (adjective:) x_1 is central. See also {lanxe}, {jbini}, {nutli}, {snuji}, {milxe}, {denmi}, {ralju}. mifra gismu -mif- x_1 is encoded/cipher text of plain-text x_2 by code/coding system x_3; x_1 is in code; x_3 is a code. Code (= {termifra}). See also {mipri}, {lerfu}, {sinxa}. mikce gismu -mic- x_1 doctors/treats/nurses/[cures]/is physician/midwife to x_2 for ailment x_3 by treatment/cure x_4. Also medic; (adjective:) x_1, x_4 is medical; x_2 is a patient of x_1 (= selmikce for reordered places) ; x_2 is treated by x_1 person/x_4 treatment/method; successfully cure transitive (= {sadmikce}, {sadvelmikce}), intransitive (= sadyselmikce, ka'orbi'o to not imply an external agent/process, though the x_1 and x_4 of mikce may be self/internal); treatment (= {velmikce}). See also {bilma}, {kanro}, {spita}. mikri gismu -mik- x_1 is a millionth [10^{-6}] of x_2 in dimension/aspect x_3 (default is units). See also {grake}, {mitre}, {snidu}, {stero}, {delno}, {molro}, {kelvo}, {xampo}, {gradu}, {litce}, {merli}, {centi}, {decti}, {dekto}, {femti}, {gigdo}, {gocti}, {gotro}, {kilto}, {megdo}, {milti}, {nanvi}, {petso}, {picti}, {terto}, {xatsi}, {xecto}, {xexso}, {zepti}, {zetro} milti gismu -mil- x_1 is a thousandth [1/1000; 10^{-3}] of x_2 in dimension/aspect x_3 (default is units). See also {grake}, {mitre}, {snidu}, {stero}, {delno}, {molro}, {kelvo}, {xampo}, {gradu}, {litce}, {merli}, {centi}, {decti}, {dekto}, {femti}, {gigdo}, {gocti}, {gotro}, {kilto}, {megdo}, {mikri}, {nanvi}, {petso}, {picti}, {terto}, {xatsi}, {xecto}, {xexso}, {zepti}, {zetro} milxe gismu -mli- x_1 is mild/non-extreme/gentle/middling/somewhat in property x_2 (ka); x_1 is not very x_2. See also {mutce}, {traji}, {kandi}, {ruble}, {midju}, {nutli}, {ralci}. minde gismu -mid- -mi'e- x_1 issues commands/orders to x_2 for result x_3 (event/state) to happen; x_3 is commanded to occur. [also: x_1 orders/sets/Triggers. x_2 to do/bring about x_3; x_1 is a commander; commanded (= {termi'e})]; See also {lacri}, te {bende}, {jatna}, {ralju}, {jitro}, {turni}, {tinbe}. minji gismu -mi'i- x_1 is a machine for use/function x_2; [automated apparatus, without direct function control]. Also machinery/mechanism; a machine is initiated/triggered by an agent/force, but thereafter performs its function automatically; if self-directed, (a minji is an) entity (= {zukte}). See also {cabra}, {matra}, {tutci}, {zukte}, {pilno}, {skami}. minli gismu x_1 is x_2 (default 1) long local distance unit(s) [non-metric], x_3 subunits, standard x_4. (additional subunit places may be added as x_5, x_6, ...); See also {mitre}, {kilto}, {clani}, {ganra}, {condi}, {rotsu}, {rupnu}, {fepni}, {dekpu}, {gutci}, {minli}, {merli}, {bunda}, {kramu}. minra gismu -mir- x_1 reflects/mirrors/echoes x_2 [object/radiation] to observer/point x_3 as x_4; x_2 bounces on x_1. Also: x_1 is a mirror/reflector. x_2 may be light, lu'e of an imaged object; x_4 may be image or echo or the same as x_2 if physical object; x_3 may be a path for a bounced object; ka is reflection. See also {catlu}, {viska}, {lenjo}, {pensi}. mintu gismu -mit- -mi'u- x_1 is the same/identical thing as x_2 by standard x_3; (x_1 and x_2 interchangeable). (cf. {panra}, {satci}, {mapti}, {simsa}, {drata}, {dunli}, cmavo list {du} - which has no standard place, {simxu}) mipri gismu -mip- x_1 keeps x_2 secret/hidden from x_3 by method x_4; x_2 is a secret; x_1 hides/conceals x_2. Intransitive hidden/secret, without an agent (= {selcri} or {nalterju'o}); secret (= {selmipri}). See also {stace}, {mifra}, {sivni}, {djuno}, {cirko}, {jarco}. mirli gismu x_1 is a deer/elk/moose/[hart/stag/doe] of species/breed x_2. See also {mabru}, {danlu}. misno gismu -mis- -mi'o- x_1 (person/object/event) is famous/renowned/is a celebrity among community of persons x_2 (mass). Also celebrated/well-known; (derogative meanings:) notorious/infamous (= {malmi'o}; these could also be expressed using the referenced words). See also se {sinma}, {banli}. misro gismu x_1 reflects Egyptian culture/nationality in aspect x_2. See also {friko}, {muslo}, {xrabo}. mitre gismu -tre- x_1 is x_2 meter(s) [metric unit] in length (default 1) measured in direction x_3 by standard x_4. See also {kilto}, {centi}, {decti}, {dekto}, {femti}, {gigdo}, {gocti}, {gotro}, {gutci}, {litce}, {megdo}, {mikri}, {milti}, {minli}, {nanvi}, {petso}, {picti}, {terto}, {xatsi}, {xecto}, {xexso}, {zepti}, {zetro}. mixre gismu -mix- -xre- x_1 (mass) is a mixture/blend/colloid/commingling with ingredients including x_2. x_2 mingles/mixes/blends into x_1; x_2 is in x_1, an ingredient/part/component/element of x_1 (= {selxre} for reordered places). See also {salta}, te {runta}, {stasu}, {jicla}, {sanso}. mlana gismu -mla- x_1 is to the side of/lateral to x_2 and facing x_3 from point of view/in-frame-of-reference x_4. (cf. {crane}, {trixe}, {pritu}, {zunle} which differ in that the direction of facing is the front and not the lateral side. The x_4 of mlana may be either the front, or back side of x_2, {korbi}) mlatu gismu -lat- x_1 is a cat/[puss/pussy/kitten] [feline animal] of species/breed x_2; (adjective:) x_1 is feline. See also {cinfo}, {tirxu}, {gerku}. mleca gismu -mec- -me'a- x_1 is less than x_2 in property/quantity x_3 (ka/ni) by amount x_4. Also negative (= {nonme'a}). See also cmavo list {me'a}, cmavo list {su'o}, {jdika}, {zmadu}, {traji}. mledi gismu -led- x_1 is a mold/fungus/mushrooms/truffles of species/strain x_2 parasitic/growing on x_3. See also {clika}. mluni gismu -lun- x_1 is a satellite/moon orbiting x_2 with characteristics x_3, orbital parameters x_4. See also {plini}, {solri}, {lunra}. mogle experimental gismu x_1 is a Muggle/an outsider/a foreigner/uninitiated to group/community x_2 (default {jbopre}) mokca gismu -moc- x_1 is a point/instant/moment [0-dimensional shape/form] in/on/at time/place x_2. x_1 is dimensionless. See also {jipno}, {jganu}, {linji}, {stuzi}, {tcika}. moklu gismu -mol- -mo'u- x_1 is a/the mouth/oral cavity [body-part] of x_2; (metaphor: entrance/intake for consumption). (adjective:) x_1 is oral. See also {ctebi}, {denci}, {tance}. molki gismu -mlo- x_1 is a mill/foundry/industrial plant/[assembly line] performing process x_2. (unlike fanri,) need not produce a product; grain mill (= {grumlo}), grinding mill (= {zalmlo}, {zalmlotci}, {zalmloca'a}). See also {gasta}, {gurni}, {tirse}, {fanri}, {zalvi}. molro gismu -mo'o- x_1 is x_2 mole(s) [metric unit] in substance (default is 1) by standard x_3. See also {centi}, {decti}, {dekto}, {femti}, {gigdo}, {gocti}, {gotro}, {kilto}, {megdo}, {mikri}, {milti}, {nanvi}, {petso}, {picti}, {terto}, {xatsi}, {xecto}, {xexso}, {zepti}, {zetro}. morji gismu -moj- -mo'i- x_1 remembers/recalls/recollects fact(s)/memory x_2 (du'u) about subject x_3. See also cmavo list {ba'anai}, {menli}, {pensi}, {sanji}, {djuno}, {notci}. morko gismu -mor- x_1 reflects Moroccan culture/nationality in aspect x_2. See also {friko}, {xrabo}, {muslo}. morna gismu -mon- -mo'a- x_1 is/reflects/represents a pattern of forms/events x_2 arranged according to structure x_3. [x_3 is a model for x_1 (= {termontai}, or the more abstract = {termonsi'o}); image (= {gusmo'a}, {nenmo'a}, {dairmo'a}, {selylenmo'a}, {selmirmo'a}, {velmirmo'a}, but also all of these -tai instead of -mo'a for the ideal)]; See also {ciste}, {ganzu}, {marji}, {slilu}, {stura}, {tarmi}, {boxna}, {cimde}, {gidva}, {jimpe}, {rilti}. morsi gismu -mro- x_1 is dead/has ceased to be alive. Die/mortal (= {mrobi'o}, {co'urji'e}). See also {jmive}, {catra}, {betri}. mosra gismu -mos- x_1 is friction [force opposing motion] due to contact/rubbing between x_2 and x_3; (fe) x_2 rubs x_3. Also x_2 scrubs/wipes/brushes (against) x_3 (= {seltermosra}); non-agentive rub (= {termosra}). See also {sakli}, {sraku}, {jabre}, {satre}, {guska}, {pencu}, {spali}. mraji gismu x_1 is a quantity of rye [grain] of species/strain x_2. See also {gurni}. mrilu gismu -mri- x_1 mails/posts [transfer via intermediary service] x_2 to recipient address x_3 from mailbox/post office/sender address x_4 by carrier/network/system x_5. Also x_4 post office, mailbox. (cf. {benji} In which the medium need not be a 3rd party service/system, and x_2 need not consist of discrete units. {notci}, {xatra}, {tcana}) mruli gismu -mru- x_1 [tool] is a hammer for/hammers x_2 [target] consisting of weight/head x_3 propelled by x_4. See also {tutci}. mucti gismu -mut- x_1 is immaterial/not physical/without material form. See also {marji}, {menli}, {pruxi}, {sidbo}. mudri gismu -mud- x_1 is a quantity of/is made of/contains wood/lumber from tree(s) of type/species x_2. See also {tricu}, {stani}. mugle experimental gismu x_1 is a Muggle to/distinctly separate from but of similar breed to (type/community) x_2, reflecting common/Muggle culture x_3; x_1 is not in-the-know about (people/group/culture/knowledge) x_2; x_1 is a Muggle/an outsider/a foreigner/uninitiated to group/community x_2 Not mere stranger: implies a (previous or typical) total lack of knowledge about the existence or awareness of x_2 on the part of x_1. x_1 is a Muggle. x_2 is specialist/foreign/alien/arcane/hidden/wizarding/magic culture (not restrictive: it is just any separate group); x_3 is Muggle/quotidian culture. x_1 lacks the access credentials/knowledge of culture/group x_2 and is a member of culture/group x_3. mukti gismu -muk- -mu'i- x_1 (action/event/state) motivates/is a motive/incentive for action/event x_2, per volition of x_3. Also; x_3 is motivated to bring about result/goal/objective x_2 by x_1 (= {termu'i} for reordered places); (note that 'under conditions' BAI may apply and be appropriately added to the main predicate level or within the x_2 action level). (cf. cmavo list {mu'i}, {nibli}, te {zukte} - generally better for 'goal', se {jalge}, {krinu}, {rinka}, {ciksi}, {djica}, {xlura}) mulno gismu -mul- -mu'o- x_1 (event) is complete/done/finished; x_1 (object) has become whole in property x_2 by standard x_3. Also perfected, entirety; (adverb/adjective:) entire, total, integral, fully, totally, wholly, completely, entirely. See also {fanmo}, {culno}, {pagbu}, {xadba}, {prane}, {jalge}, {sumji}, {munje}, {sisti}, {xadni}. munje gismu -muj- -mu'e- x_1 is a universe/cosmos [complete and ordered entirety] of domain/sphere x_2 defined by rules x_3. Also world; a universe is a kind of system, one which comprehensively encompasses its domain; e.g. 'universe of discourse', or 'world of birds'; x_3 are the rules/defining principles which distinguish the universe from other universes, or from non-universe. See also {ciste}, {plini}, {kensa}, {mulno}. mupli gismu -mup- x_1 is an example/sample/specimen/instance/case/illustration of common property(s) x_2 of set x_3. See also cmavo list {mu'u}, {pixra}. murse gismu x_1 is the [astronomical] twilight/dawn/dusk/half-light/glimmering of day x_2 at location x_3. Morning twilight, dawn (= {cermurse}); evening twilight, dusk (= {vacmurse}). See also {cerni}, {kandi}, {vanci}. murta gismu -mur- -mu'a- x_1 is a curtain/blinds/drapes for covering/obscuring aperture x_2, and made of material x_3. See also {canko}, {vorme}. muslo gismu -mus- x_1 pertains to the Islamic/Moslem/Koranic [Quranic] culture/religion/nation in aspect x_2. Also Muslim. See also {jegvo}, {lijda}. mutce gismu -tce- x_1 is much/extreme in property x_2 (ka), towards x_3 extreme/direction; x_1 is, in x_2, very x_3. Also very, pretty, a lot, immoderate/immoderately, intense, quite, extremely. See also {milxe}, {traji}, {banli}, {carmi}, {nutli}. muvdu gismu -muv- -mu'u- x_1 (object) moves to destination/receiver x_2 [away] from origin x_3 over path/route x_4. Also mobile (= {comymu'u}, for the non-specific opposite of immobile); after a muvdu, object is alienated from/no longer at origin (unless physically returned there, per litru or slilu); agentive move (= {muvgau}, {muvzu'e}), non-agentive transitive move (= {muvri'a}), self-propelled (= {sezmuvgau}), motion of a part of the object (= {pagmu'u}), having a moving part (= {muvypau}, {muvyselpau}); apparent motion (= {mlumu'u}). (cf. {rinci}, {klama} (which differs in that the means of motion is explicit), {litru}, {cliva}, {fatri}; {dunda}, {benji} for agentive movement that does not necessarily imply alienation from origin, preja for similar movement with no agent implied, {bevri}, {vimcu}) muzga gismu -muz- x_1 is a museum for preserving [and possibly exhibiting] x_2 at location x_3. See also {citri}. nabmi gismu -nam- x_1 (event/state) is a problem to/encountered by x_2 in situation/task/inquiry x_3. Also: x_1 requires consideration by x_2. See also {preti}, {danfu}, {ciksi}, {jijnu}, {jinvi}, {nandu}, {pensi}, {sidbo}, {spuda}, {raktu}. nakni gismu -nak- x_1 is a male/buck of species x_2 evidencing masculine trait(s) x_3 (ka); x_1 is masculine. See also {fetsi}, {bersa}. nalci gismu -na'i- x_1 is a/the wing [body-part] of x_2; [metaphor: lateral supporting surface]. See also {cipni}, {pimlu}, {rebla}. namcu gismu -nac- -na'u- x_1 (li) is a number/quantifier/digit/value/figure (noun); refers to the value and not the symbol. See also {lerfu}, {mekso}, {klani}. nanba gismu -nab- x_1 is a quantity of/contains bread [leavened or unleavened] made from grains x_2. See also {gurni}, {panlo}, {toknu}. nanca gismu -na'a- x_1 is x_2 years in duration (default is 1 year) by standard x_3; (adjective:) x_1 is annual. This year (= {cabna'a}); next year (= {bavlamna'a}); last year (= {prulamna'a}). See also {detri}, {djedi}, {jeftu}, {masti}. nandu gismu -nad- x_1 is difficult/hard/challenging for x_2 under conditions x_3; x_1 challenges (non-agentive) x_2. See also {frili}, {nabmi}, {jdari}, {talsa}, {tinsa}. nanla gismu x_1 is a boy/lad [young male person] of age x_2 immature by standard x_3. Word dispreferred in metaphor/example as sexist; (use verba). See also {nixli}, {verba}, {nanmu}, {bersa}. nanmu gismu -nau- x_1 is a man/men; x_1 is a male humanoid person [not necessarily adult]. Word dispreferred in metaphor/example as sexist; (use remna or prenu). See also {ninmu}, {remna}, {prenu}, {makcu}, {nanla}, {bersa}. nanvi gismu -nav- x_1 is a billionth/thousand-millionth [10^{-9}] of x_2 in dimension/aspect x_3 (default is units). See also {grake}, {mitre}, {snidu}, {stero}, {delno}, {molro}, {kelvo}, {xampo}, {gradu}, {litce}, {merli}, {centi}, {decti}, {dekto}, {femti}, {gigdo}, {gocti}, {gotro}, {kilto}, {megdo}, {mikri}, {milti}, {petso}, {picti}, {terto}, {xatsi}, {xecto}, {xexso}, {zepti}, {zetro} narge gismu -nag- x_1 is a nut [body-part: hard-shelled fruit] from plant/species x_2 with shell x_3 and kernel x_4. Also x_4 nucleus, center (= {velnarge} for place reordering). See also {grute}, {stagi}, {jbari}, {midju}. narju gismu -naj- x_1 is orange [color adjective]. See also {skari}, {blabi}, {xekri}, {kandi}, {carmi}, {xunre}, {pelxu}, {solji}. natfe gismu -naf- -na'e- x_1 (du'u) contradicts/denies/refutes/negates x_2 (du'u) under rules/logic x_3. Also exception (= {nafmupli}); agentive contradict/deny (= {nafxu'a} or {tolxu'a}). See also {nibli}, {tugni}, {zanru}, {xusra}. natmi gismu -nat- -nai- x_1 is a nation/ethnic group of peoples x_2; [people sharing a history/culture]. See also {jecta}, {kulnu}, {lanzu}, {gugde}, {bangu}, {cecmu}. natsi experimental gismu x_1 reflects/pertains to Nazi/National Socialistic ideologies in aspect/manner x_2 Connotations are neutral. Cultural and historic ties are loose. For German Nazis (or those who share their ideologies (again, the connotation is neutral and historic ties are loose)), use {dotnatsi}. navni gismu x_1 is a quantity of/contains/is made of noble gas of type x_2 [helium/neon/argon/krypton/xenon/radon]. Default neon. See also {xukmi}, {gapci}; {tolfragapci}; {solnavni}, {ninynavni}, {laznynavni}, {mipnavni}, {fangynavni}, {dircynavni}. naxle gismu -nax- -xle- x_1 is a canal/channel to x_2 from x_3 with route x_4. x_2/x_3 may be unordered. See also {pluta}, {rirxe}, {klaji}, {dargu}. nazbi gismu -naz- -zbi- x_1 is the nose [body-part] of x_2 with nostril(s)/nasal passage(s) x_3; [metaphor: protrusion]. Also (adjective:) nasal. See also {degji}, {panci}, {sumne}, {tance}. nejni gismu -nen- x_1 is energy of type x_2 in form x_3. Ray/beam (= {nenli'i}). See also {marji}, {tarmi}, {kantu}, {lazni}, {livla}. nelci gismu -nel- -nei- x_1 is fond of/likes/has a taste for x_2 (object/state). See also {cinmo}, {djica}, {pluka}, {prami}, {rigni}, {sinma}, {trina}, {xebni}, {cuxna}, {pendo}. nenri gismu -ner- -ne'i- x_1 is in/inside/within x_2; x_1 is on the inside/interior of x_2 [totally within the bounds of x_2]. Indicates total containment. (cf. se {vasru} (for containment that need not be total), {jbini}, {zvati}, {cpana}, {sruri}, {senta}, {snuji}, {bartu}, {diklo}, {jibni}, {jinru}, {setca}) nerde experimental gismu x_1 is a nerd/geek (demonstrates esoteric intense interests at the cost social acceptance) according to standard/within culture x_2 with nerdy/geeky interests x_3 Modeled on the definition of {mugle}. Some degree of (at least budding) expertise might be implied, but it is not truly necessary. There just has to be a degree of social rejection or isolation and an intense interest about (a) narrow and somewhat obscure subject matter(s). A nerd need not always be socially disconnected, but it should happen at least where x_3 is involved or the interest becomes relevant/apparent. On the other hand, nerdiness/geekiness is also a personality (or a trait thereof), some sense, it never does not apply if it ever applies; but there are contexts wherein certain traits do not really emerge/reveal themselves readily. The intensity of interest in x_3 should be judged to be excessive and abnornal, to the point of social separation, by/relative to x_2. nibli gismu -nib- -ni'i- x_1 logically necessitates/entails/implies action/event/state x_2 under rules/logic system x_3. See also {natfe}, {rinka}, {mukti}, {krinu}, cmavo list {ni'i}, {jalge}, {logji}. nicfa experimental gismu x_1 (vector) is the displacement of x_2 (object/point) relative to x_3 (object/point; contextless default: origin) in coordinate system/frame of reference/as measured by x_4 according to definition/standard/(meta)physics x_5 x1 is (four-)vector-valued; it is a function that maps to a tensor (probably a vector or scalar) to a (four-)vector. Units are handled in x1, which will be a (four-)vector of {mitre} or the like. Time of measurement is just «ca» or the argument of the function(s) in x1, or can be defined instantaneously by x4. Proposed short rafsi: -nif-. See also: {nifkemtemsalri}. nicte gismu -cte- x_1 is a nighttime of day x_2 at location x_3; (adjective:) x_1 is at night/nocturnal. Tonight (= {cabycte}); tomorrow night (= {bavlamcte}, even when tonight is still in the future); last night (= {prulamcte}). See also {donri}, {djedi}, {tcika}. nikle gismu -nik- x_1 is made of/contains/is a quantity of nickel/other metal resistant to oxidation. See also {jinme}. nilce gismu -ni'e- x_1 [furniture items] furnishes x_2 [location] serving purpose/function x_3. See also {ckana}, {jubme}, {sfofa}, {stizu}, {dacru}. nimre gismu x_1 is a quantity of citrus [fruit/tree, etc.] of species/strain x_2. See also {grute}, {slari}, {slami}, {xukmi}. ninja experimental gismu x_1 is ninja from x_2 (family/place/tribe) ninmu gismu -nim- -ni'u- x_1 is a woman/women; x_1 is a female humanoid person [not necessarily adult]. Word dispreferred in metaphor/example as sexist; (use remna or prenu). See also {nanmu}, {remna}, {prenu}, {makcu}, {nixli}. nirna gismu -nir- x_1 is a nerve/neuron [body-part] of x_2; [metaphor: information/control network connection]. Also (adjective:) x_1 is neural. See also ve {benji}. nitcu gismu -tcu- x_1 needs/requires/is dependent on/[wants] necessity x_2 for purpose/action/stage of process x_3. No implication of lack. See also {banzu}, {cidja}, {claxu}, {pindi}, {xebni}, {sarcu}, {lacri}, {djica}, {taske}, {xagji}. nivji gismu -niv- x_1 (agent) knits x_2 [cloth/object] from yarn/thread x_3. See also {cilta}, {fenso}, {jivbu}, {pijne}. nixli gismu -nix- -xli- x_1 is a girl [young female person] of age x_2 immature by standard x_3. Word dispreferred in metaphor/example as sexist; (use verba). See also {nanla}, {verba}, {ninmu}. nobli gismu -nol- -no'i- x_1 is noble/aristocratic/elite/high-born/titled in/under culture/society/standard x_2. Also upper-class; high/low, upper/lower are poor Lojban metaphors; note x_2 standard applies when the title/nobility is not recognized culture/society wide; this would include self-assumed titles. See also {banli}. norgo experimental gismu x_1 reflects Norwegian culture/nationality in aspect x_2 Experimental gismu. notci gismu -not- -noi- x_1 is a message/notice/memorandum about subject x_2 from author x_3 to intended audience x_4. Emphasis on brevity, single or identifiable subject (contrast with xatra: the emphasis in notci is on the single or cohesively focused subject, while the audience is less defined - indeed only an 'intended' audience. xatra need not have a single or focussed subject - its corresponding place is for 'content'); reminder/memo/note (= {mojnoi}). See also {xatra}, {nuzba}, {mrilu}, {morji}. nudle experimental gismu x_1 are noodles made of x_2 Also {nanba} {skori} nukni gismu -nuk- x_1 is magenta/fuchsia/purplish-red [color adjective]. See also {skari}, {blabi}, {xekri}, {kandi}, {carmi}, {xunre}, {zirpu}. nunmu experimental gismu x_1 is a non-binary-gendered humanoid person [not necessarily adult] Umbrella term for any non-man non-woman (in some aspect/consideration/standard) humanoid person; possibly includes: transgenders, people of no gender/sex, people of indeterminate gender/sex, hermaphrodites, intersexed people, bisexuals (one sense), possibly people with sex chromosomes other than (specifically and fully) XX or XY, and anyone who does not subscribe to or fit within the strict gender/sex binary (of a given society). As such, it is a specification of {rempre}/{remna}/{prenu} co-equal with {ninmu} and {nanmu}; it generalized some of the aforementioned cases. Word dispreferred in metaphor/example as sexist; use instead {remna} or {prenu}. See also: {ninmu}, {nanmu}, {remna}, {prenu}, {makcu}, {bersa}, {tixnu}, {paznu}, {nakni}, {fetsi}, {dinti}, {nanla}, {nixli}, {verba}, {vepre} nupre gismu -nup- -nu'e- x_1 (agent) promises/commits/assures/threatens x_2 (event/state) to x_3 [beneficiary/victim]. See also {kajde}, {xusra}. nurma gismu -num- x_1 is a rural/rustic/pastoral area of x_2; x_1 is in the country. See also {jarbu}, {rarna}, {tcadu}, {cange}. nusna experimental gismu x_1 induces x_2 about x_3 from specific facts x_4 See {didni}, {nibji'i}, {biglogji}, {krilogji} nutka experimental gismu x_1 talks in a non-sumti-or-predicate manner x_2 (property of x_1) See also {baurnu'uku}, {banmujexe} nutli gismu -nul- -nu'i- x_1 is neutral/not taking sides/medial/not towards any extreme on scale/in dissension x_2. Also x_2 dispute/struggle (though x_2 is not limited to disagreements, which is merely one manifestation of scalar or distributed values in which there is a medial position). See also {midju}, {lanxe}, {milxe}, {mutce}, cmavo list {no'e}. nuzba gismu -nuz- x_1 (du'u) is news/tidings/new information about subject x_2 from source x_3, to observer x_4. See also {cnino}, {notci}. nuzlo experimental gismu x_1 reflects New Zealand culture/nationality/geography/dialect in aspect x_2. Cf. {glico}, {sralo}. pacna gismu -pa'a- x_1 hopes/wishes for/desires x_2 (event), expected likelihood x_3 (0-1); x_1 hopes that x_2 happens. Also: x_1 is hopeful of x_2; x_2 will hopefully occur, as hoped for by x_1; the value of x_3 is a subjective estimate of likeliness according to x_1, and is the basic determinant of whether pacna means 'hope' or 'wish' or 'expect': hoping for objects/states with negligible expectation is "wishing"; if the state is plausibly likely, it is "hoping"; when the probability is subjectively near 1, the attitude is described as "expecting"; the value will usually be expressed using inexact numbers ("{li} {piso'u}" to "{li} {piro}"); wish (= {sotpa'a}), hope (= {sorpa'a}), expect (= {sojypa'a}). See also {djica}. pagbu gismu -pag- -pau- x_1 is a part/component/piece/portion/segment of x_2 [where x_2 is a whole/mass]; x_2 is partly x_1. Partly (= {selpau}). See also cmavo list {pa'u}, {mulno}, {xadba}, {spisa}, {gunma}, {rafsi}. pagre gismu -gre- x_1 passes through/penetrates barrier/medium/portal x_2 to destination side x_3 from origin side x_4. Passing through in both directions (= rolfargre, pagre ... .i so'ivo'ivo'u (and vice versa)). See also {bitmu}, {denci}, {ganlo}, {kalri}, {vorme}, {pluta}, {canko}, {ragve}. pajni gismu -pai- x_1 judges/referees/arbitrates/is a judge determining/deciding matter x_2 (abstract). x_2 includes jei = rule ({jetpai}), ni = estimate ({lairpai}), ka = evaluate ({kairpai} or {vampai}), or nu = referee/arbitrate ({faurpai}); single events of judging including specific decisions/judgements (= {paijdi}, {jetpaijdi}, {lairpaijdi}, {kairpaijdi}, {vampaijdi}, {faurpaijdi}); jury (= {pairkamni}), serve on a jury (= {kamnypai}, as part of mass x_1). See also {cuxna}, {jdice}, {vajni}, {cipra}, {zekri}, {manri}, {mansa}. palci gismu -pac- x_1 is evil/depraved/wicked [morally bad] by standard x_2. See also {zekri}, {vrude}, {xlali}, {marde}, {mabla}. palku gismu -pak- x_1 are pants/trousers/slacks/leggings [legged garment] of material x_2. See also {taxfu}, {pastu}, {skaci}. palma experimental gismu x_1 is a palm tree (Palmae/Arecaceae) of species x_2 Cf. {tricnrarekake}, {tricu}, {kokso}, {grasu}, {narge} palne gismu x_1 is a tray/platter/flat container [pan/sheet/griddle] of contents x_2, and made of material x_3. Also pallet, when used for carrying rather than support on the ground; a tray is flat-bottomed and shallow or without a rim, and is generally portable. See also {tansi}, {patxu}, {palta}, {ckana}. palpi experimental gismu x_1 palpates/palps/touch-feels x_2 (surface structure) See {pencu}, {tengu}, {sefta}, {ganse} palta gismu x_1 is a plate/dish/platter/saucer [flat/mildly concave food service bed] made of material x_2. See also {ckana}, {palne}, {kabri}, {tansi}, {ckana}. pambe gismu x_1 is a pump/injector [tool/apparatus] pumping/inserting fluid x_2 to x_3 from x_4 by means x_5. x_2 fluid may be liquid or gas; x_5 may be a force; a pump generally causes a pressure gradient, such that x_3 is a place of lower pressure, x_4 a place of higher pressure. (cf. {gapci}, {litki}, {rinci}; metaphorical use of {fepri} for gas, {risna} for liquid, {rinci}, {tutci}) pamga experimental gismu x_1 is a papaya (fruit) of species/variety/cultivar x_2 {rutrpaupau} is the non-experimental synonym of “pamga”. See also {grute}. panci gismu -pan- x_1 is an odor/fragrance/scent/smell emitted by x_2 and detected by observer/sensor x_3. An undetected emitter is odorless to the observer. See also {nazbi}, {sumne}, {cpina}, {vrusi}. pandi gismu -pad- x_1 (agent) punctuates x_2 (expression) with symbol/word x_3 with syntactic/semantic effect x_4. See also {lerfu}, {basna}, {denpa}. panje gismu x_1 is a quantity of/contains/is made of sponge/porous material. Also metaphorically used for coral, Swiss cheese. See also {cokcu} for a generalized absorbant. panka gismu x_1 is a park/land reserve managed by community/polity/company x_2 for purpose x_3. See also {sorcu}, {zdile}, {klaji}, {purdi}. panlo gismu -pa'o- x_1 is a slice [thin flat portion] of x_2 (mass). See also {spisa}, {pagbu}, {nanba}. panpi gismu -pap- x_1 is at peace with x_2. (cf. {jamna}; use {sarxe}, {smaji}, {tugni} for most metaphorical extensions, {cilce}, {jamna}) panra gismu x_1 parallels x_2 differing only in property x_3 (ka; jo'u/fa'u term) by standard/geometry x_4. Also: x_1 is parallel to x_2, x_3 is the only difference between x_1 and x_2 (= {terpanra} for reordered places); x_1 and x_2 are alike/similar/congruent. A parallel involves extreme close similarity/correspondence across the entirety of the things being compared, generally involving multiple properties, with focus placed on one or a small number of differences. See also {pa'a}, {mintu}, {simsa}, {girzu}, {vrici}. pante gismu -pat- x_1 protests/objects to/complains about x_2 (event/state) to audience x_3 with action x_4. (x_4 is an event or {tu'a} quotation) See also {xarnu}. panzi gismu -paz- x_1 is a [biological] offspring/child/kid/hybrid of parent(s) x_2; (adjective:) x_1 is filial. See also {grute}, {verba}, {bersa}, {tixnu}, se {rorci}, {patfu}. papri gismu x_1 is a [physical] page/leaf of book/document/bound mass of pages x_2. Numbered pages (as in a book) are the sides of a page (= {paprysfe}, {paprysfelai}); a pageful of text (= {papryseltcidu}, {paprytcidylai}). See also {karni}, {pelji}, {prina}, {xatra}, {vreji}, {pezli}, {cukta}, {ciska}. parbi gismu -pab- x_1 (me'o, fraction) is a ratio/rate of x_2 (quantity) with respect to x_3 (quantity), [x_2:x_3]. Also x_1 fraction/proportion/quotient; x_2 dividend/numerator; x_3 divisor/denominator. See also {frinu}, {dilcu}, {mekso}. pardu experimental gismu x_1 is a leopard of species x_2 See {bramlatu} parji experimental gismu x_1 is a parasite of x_2. see also {civla}, {cipnrkuku}, {xidnora} pastu gismu -pas- x_1 is a robe/tunic/gown/cloak/dress/[coveralls] [a long/full body garment] of material x_2. Also coveralls (= {paspalku}). See also {kosta}, {taxfu}, {palku}. patfu gismu -paf- -pa'u- x_1 is a father of x_2; x_1 begets/sires/acts paternal towards x_2; [not necessarily biological]. See also {mamta}, {rirni}, {rorci}, {tarbi}, {dzena}, {famti}, {panzi}, {bersa}, {sovda}. patlu gismu x_1 is a potato [an edible tuber] of variety/cultivar x_2. (use samcu for starchy/tuberous roots that do not reproduce from eyes of tuber); See also {genja}, {jalna}, {samcu}. patxu gismu -pax- x_1 is a pot/kettle/urn/tub/sink, a deep container for contents x_2, of material/properties x_3. (cf. {tansi}, {palne} for depth; {baktu}, {botpi} for open/lidded) paznu experimental gismu x_1 is a non-binary-gendered offspring/child of mother/father/parents x_2 [not necessarily biological]; x_1 is filial (but not a son or daughter) Umbrella term for any non-male non-famle (in some aspect/consideration/standard) child/offspring; possibly includes: transgenders, people of no gender/sex, people of indeterminate gender/sex, hermaphrodites, intersexed people, bisexuals (one sense), possibly people with sex chromosomes other than (specifically and fully) XX or XY, and anyone who does not subscribe to or fit within the strict gender/sex binary (of a given society). Specifies {selrirni}, {verba}, {panzi} so as to be co-equal with {bersa} and {tixnu}. See also: {verba}, {nanla}, {nixli}, {nakni}, {fetsi}, {dinti}, {vepre}, {nunmu}, {patfu}, {mamta}, {rirni}, {preri}, {bruna}, {mensi}, {tunba}, {pentu}, {rorci}, {panzi}, {bersa}, {tixnu}) pelji gismu -ple- x_1 is paper from source x_2. Sheet of paper (= {plekarda} if shape is important, {plebo'o}). See also {karni}, {papri}, {prina}. pelxu gismu -pel- x_1 is yellow/golden [color adjective]. See also {skari}, {blabi}, {xekri}, {kandi}, {carmi}, {narju}, {solji}. pemci gismu -pem- x_1 is a poem/verse about plot/theme/subject/pattern x_2 by author x_3 for intended audience x_4. x_2 may be a convention rather than a subject. See also {prosa}, {rimni}, {rilti}, {finti}, {lisri}, {sanga}. penbi gismu -peb- x_1 is a pen using ink x_2 applied by process x_3. See also {ciska}, {pinsi}, {xinmo}, {pimlu}. pencu gismu -pec- -pe'u- x_1 (agent) touches x_2 with x_3 [a locus on x_1 or an instrument] at x_4 [a locus on x_2]. See also {ganse}, {darxi}, {jgari}, {penmi}, {jorne}, {satre}, {mosra}, {zgana}. pendo gismu -ped- -pe'o- x_1 is/acts as a friend of/to x_2 (experiencer); x_2 befriends x_1. See also {bradi}, {xendo}, {nelci}, {prami}, {bradi}. penmi gismu -pen- -pe'i- x_1 meets/encounters x_2 at/in location x_3. See also {jorne}, {jikca}, {pencu}. pensi gismu -pes- -pei- x_1 thinks/considers/cogitates/reasons/is pensive about/reflects upon subject/concept x_2. Also: x_1 is thoughtful (one sense); x_2 is mental (one sense)/intellectual (one sense) (= {selpei}). See also cmavo list {pe'i}, {jijnu}, {menli}, {morji}, {sidbo}, {jinvi}, se {nabmi}, {minra}, {lanli}, {besna}, {saske}, {skami}. pentu experimental gismu x_1 is a non-binary-gendered sibling of/to x_2 by bond/tie/standard/parent(s) x_3; [not necessarily biological] See also: {dinti}, {nunmu}, {tunba}, {mensi}, {bruna}, {tamne}, {famti}. perli gismu -per- x_1 is a pear [fruit] of species/strain x_2. See also {grute}. pesxu gismu -pex- x_1 is paste/pulp/dough/mash/mud/slurry [soft, smooth-textured, moist solid] of composition x_2. x_2: composition including x_2, which need not be complete specification. See also {marxa}, {kliti}, {tarla}. petso gismu -pet- x_1 is 10^15 of x_2 in dimension/aspect x_3 (default is units). See also {grake}, {mitre}, {snidu}, {stero}, {delno}, {molro}, {kelvo}, {xampo}, {gradu}, {litce}, {merli}, {centi}, {decti}, {dekto}, {femti}, {gigdo}, {gocti}, {gotro}, {kilto}, {megdo}, {mikri}, {milti}, {nanvi}, {picti}, {terto}, {xatsi}, {xecto}, {xexso}, {zepti}, {zetro} pevna experimental gismu x_1: its qualities are represented as a metaphor x_2 in dimension x_{3+1,2} x3 can include references to x1 and x2. See {pe'a}, {sidysmu}, {tanru}, {metfo}, {ve} {lujvo}, {cimjvo} pezli gismu -pez- x_1 is a leaf of plant x_2; x_1 is foliage of x_2. See also {tricu}, {papri}, {spati}. picti gismu -pic- x_1 is a trillionth [10^{-12}] of x_2 in dimension/aspect x_3 (default is units). Cf. {grake}, {mitre}, {snidu}, {stero}, {delno}, {molro}, {kelvo}, {xampo}, {gradu}, {litce}, {merli}, {centi}, {decti}, {dekto}, {femti}, {gigdo}, {gocti}, {gotro}, {kilto}, {megdo}, {mikri}, {milti}, {nanvi}, {petso}, {terto}, {xatsi}, {xecto}, {xexso}, {zepti}, {zetro}. pijne gismu x_1 is a pin/peg (needle-shaped tool) for fastening to/piercing x_2, of material/properties x_3. See also {jesni}, {nivji}, {fenso}, {dinko}, {tutci}. pikci gismu x_1 begs/pleads/supplicates/entreats/implores/beseeches/prays [asks with humility] x_2 for x_3. Also importune, petition, plea, solicit; x_2 benefactor, patron; x_3 boon, favor, gift, alms. See also {cpedu} which is more general as to manner, {pindi}. pikta gismu x_1 is a ticket entitling x_2 to entitlement/privilege x_3 (event/state) under conditions x_4. See also {jaspu}. pilda experimental gismu x_1 is pale See: {kandi}, {blabi}, {grusi}, {manku}, {xekri} pilji gismu -pi'i- x_1 is the product/total/result of factors/multiplicands (x_2 and x_3) x_2 multiplied by x_3. See also {mekso}, {sumji}, {rapli}, {jalge}, {dilcu}, {pi'i} pilka gismu -pil- -pi'a- x_1 is a crust/rind/peel/skin/hide/outer cover of x_2. (cf. {grute}, {calku}, {skapi} (pilka as a general term includes skapi), {gacri}) pilno gismu -pli- x_1 uses/employs x_2 [tool, apparatus, machine, agent, acting entity, material] for purpose x_3. Also utilize; x_2 is useful/used productively by x_1 to do x_3 (= {selpli} for reordered places); hire/employ (= {le'ipli}, {lejyplicu'a}). (cf. {tutci}, {cabra}, {minji}, {gasnu}, {zukte} for x_2, cmavo list {pi'o}, {sazri}, {jibri}) pimlu gismu -pim- -pi'u- x_1 is a/the feather/plume(s)/plumage [body-part] of animal/species x_2. See also {cipni}, {nalci}, {rebla}, {kerfa}, {penbi}. pinca gismu x_1 is a/the urine/piss/pee of x_2. See also {vikmi}, {xasne}, {kalci}, {mabla}, {festi}. pindi gismu -pid- x_1 is poor/indigent/impoverished/lacking in goods/possessions/property x_2. x_2 is scanty/meager/lacking for x_1. See also {ricfu}, {claxu}, {nitcu}, {pikci}. pinfu gismu -pif- x_1 is a prisoner/captive of x_2, restrained/held/confined by means/force x_3. See also {zifre}, {kavbu}, {rinju}, {ralte}, {fanta}, {cilce}. pinji gismu x_1 is a/the clitoris/penis [projecting reproductive organ; body-part] of x_2. Normally context eliminates need for specificity; otherwise: penis (= {nakpinji}), clitoris (= {fetpinji}). See also {cinse}, {gletu}, {vibna}, {plibu}, {vlagi}, {mabla}, {ganti}. pinka gismu -pik- x_1 (text) is a comment/remark/observation about subject x_2 expressed by x_3 to audience x_4. Also: x_3 comments/remarks/says x_1 about x_2 (= terselpinka for reordered places). See also {jinvi}, {cusku}, {zgana}, {lanli}, {bacru}, {ciska}. pinsi gismu -pis- x_1 is a pencil/crayon/stylus applying lead/marking material x_2, frame/support [of material] x_3. Also writing brush; x_1 stimulates substrate medium x_2 to display marks; explicitly denoting a standard lead pencil (= {tabypinsi}). (cf. {ciska}, {penbi} (unlike the English equivalents, pinsi is the more general term over penbi), {burcu}, {bakri}) pinta gismu -pin- x_1 is flat/level/horizontal in gravity/frame of reference x_2. See also {sraji}, {plita}, {xutla}. pinxe gismu -pix- x_1 (agent) drinks/imbibes beverage/drink/liquid refreshment x_2 from/out-of container/source x_3. See also {cidja}, {citka}, {taske}, {tunlo}, {xaksu}, {barja}, {birje}. pipno gismu -pi'o- x_1 is a piano/harpsichord/synthesizer/organ; a keyboard musical instrument. See also {zgike}. pixra gismu -pir- -xra- x_1 is a picture/illustration representing/showing x_2, made by artist x_3 in medium x_4. Also (adjective:) x_1 is pictorial/illustrative; drawing (= {xraselci'a}), x_1 draws x_2 (= xraci'a/xraci'a), image (= {xratai}), photo (= {kacmyxra}), take a photo (= {kacmyterxra}, {kacmyxragau}, {kacmyxrazu'e}); sculpture, relief (= {blixra}). See also {ciska}, {cinta}, {prina}, {mupli}, {barna}, {skina}. plana gismu x_1 is plump/fat/obese [excessively thick/bulbous/swollen] by standard x_2. See also {cinla}, {rotsu}, {barda}, {punli}, {grasu}. platu gismu -pla- x_1 (agent) plans/designs/plots plan/arrangement/plot/[schematic] x_2 for state/process x_3. Also invents/organizes; x_2 design, scheme; the structure or layout of an object would be represented as a state in x_3. See also {cartu}. pleji gismu -lej- -le'i- x_1 pays/compensates/remunerates/[rewards] payment x_2 to recipient/payee x_3 for goods/services x_4. Also x_4 commodities; x_4 may be a specific object, a commodity (mass), an event, or a property; pedantically, for objects/commodities, this is sumti-raising from ownership of the object/commodity (= {posle'i}, {posyvelyle'i} for unambiguous semantics); rent (= {jerle'i}, {lejyjbera}). (cf. {canja}, {cnemu}, {friti}, {kargu}, {vecnu}, {jdima}, {prali}, {jerna}, {sfasa}, {dunda}, {jinga}, {dapma}; see note at jdima on cost/price/value distinction, {cirko}, {dirba}) plibu gismu -pib- x_1 is a/the pubic area/external genitalia [body-part] of x_2. See also {cinse}, {gletu}, {pinji}, {vibna}, {vlagi}, {ganti}, {mabla}. plini gismu x_1 is a planet revolving around x_2 with planetary characteristics x_3, orbital parameters x_4. See also {lunra}, {mluni}, {terdi}, {solri}, {munje}. plipe gismu -pip- -pi'e- x_1 (agent/object) leaps/jumps/springs/bounds to x_2 from x_3 reaching height x_4 propelled by x_5. Place structure parallels klama; hence x_4 may be a route-like expression. See also {bajra}, {stapa}, {cpare}, {lafti}. plise gismu x_1 is an apple [fruit] of species/strain x_2. See also {grute}. plita gismu -pit- x_1 is a plane [2-dimensional shape/form] defined by points x_2 (set); x_1 is flat/[smooth]. Also: x_1 is even/planar/level. (x_2 is a set of points at least sufficient to define the plane); See also {xutla}, {sefta}, {tapla}, {karda}, {boxfo}, {pinta}. plixa gismu -lix- x_1 (agent) plows/furrows/tills [cuts into and turns up] x_2 with tool x_3 propelled by x_4. See also {kakpa}, {sraku}, {katna}, {skuro}. pluja gismu -luj- x_1 is complex/complicated/involved in aspect/property x_2 (ka) by standard x_3. Also tangled, confused. See also {cfipu}, {banli}, {sampu}, {jgena}. pluka gismu -puk- -pu'a- x_1 (event/state) seems pleasant to/pleases x_2 under conditions x_3. See also {rigni}, cmavo list {pu'a}, {melbi}, {nelci}, {prami}. pluta gismu -lut- -lu'a- x_1 is a route/path/way/course/track to x_2 from x_3 via/defined by points including x_4 (set). A route merely connects origin/destination, but need not be improved in any way; (x_4 is a set of points at least sufficient to constrain the route relevantly). (cf. {litru}, {naxle}, {tcana}, {dargu}, {klaji}, ve {klama}; {tadji}, {zukte} for means to a goal, {klama}, {pagre}) pocli experimental gismu x_1 poses deflated and derided morally worthless, cheap, vulgar, commonplace, banal qualities according to x_2 in aspect x_3 x_1 poses poshlyi [Russian original term] morally worthless, cheap, sham, smutty, vulgar, common, commonplace, trivial, trite, banal qualities that are subject to being deflated and derided. x_1 is poshlyi / posljak / posljacka / exposes poshlost' / poshlust. See {tartrpocli} for a non-experimental synonym. polje gismu -plo- x_1 (force) folds/creases x_2 at locus/loci/forming crease(s)/bend(s) x_3. For agentive folding (= {plogau}, {plozu'e}); use cardinal-value sumti in x_3, or rapli, to indicate multiple folds. See also {korcu}, {cinje}, {boxfo}, {boxna}. polno gismu -pol- x_1 reflects Polynesian/Oceanian (geographic region) culture/nationality/languages in aspect x_2. See also {sralo}, {daplu}, {xamsi}. ponjo gismu -pon- -po'o- x_1 reflects Japanese culture/nationality/language in aspect x_2. See also {xazdo}, {daplu}. ponse gismu -pos- -po'e- x_1 possesses/owns/has x_2 under law/custom x_3; x_1 is owner/proprietor of x_2 under x_3. (x_3 is generally more important to the concept than commonly accepted for the English equivalent, since the concept is broader when unconstrained, and the nature/interpretation of possession/ownership is very culturally dependent); See also {ckini}, {ralte}, {jitro}, {steci}, {srana}, {tutra}, {turni}, {zivle}. poplu experimental gismu x_1 is poplar / aspen / cottonwood (plant of genus Populus) of species x_2 See also {spati}, {tricu} porpi gismu -pop- -po'i- x_1 breaks/fractures/shatters/[splits/splinters/cracks] into pieces x_2. See also {xrani}, {spofu}, se {katna}. porsi gismu -por- -poi- x_1 [ordered set] is sequenced/ordered/listed by comparison/rules x_2 on unordered set x_3. Also (adjective:) x_1 is serial. (sets are completely specified); See also cmavo list {po'i}, {lidne}, {liste}, {cmima}. porto gismu -pot- x_1 reflects Portuguese culture/nationality/language in aspect x_2. See also {brazo}. prali gismu -pal- x_1 is a profit/gain/benefit/advantage to x_2 accruing/resulting from activity/process x_3. Also (fe) x_2 profits from x_3 (= {selterprali} for reordered places); x_1 may be a specific object, a commodity (mass), an event, or a property; pedantically, for objects/commodities, this is sumti-raising from ownership of the object/commodity (= {selposprali} for unambiguous semantics). See also {vecnu}, {cnemu}, {pleji}, {jinga}, {canja}, {sfasa}, {jerna}, {jdima}, {dunda}, {zivle}. prami gismu -pam- -pa'i- x_1 loves/feels strong affectionate devotion towards x_2 (object/state). Also: x_1 is loving towards x_2, x_1 is a lover of x_2 (one sense), x_2 is beloved by x_1 (= {selpa'i} for reordered places). See also {cinmo}, {xebni}, {nelci}, {djica}, {sinma}, {pluka}, {kurji}, {pendo}, {speni}. prane gismu -pa'e- x_1 is perfect/ideal/archetypical/faultless/flawless/un-improvable in property/aspect x_2 (ka). Also without defect/error. See also {manfo}, {curve}, {traji}, {cfila}, {mulno}. preja gismu -pej- -pe'a- x_1 spreads/expands over/into x_2 from initial state x_3. See also {tcena}, {kuspe}, {ranji}, {fatri}, {muvdu}, {benji}. prenu gismu -pre- x_1 is a person/people (noun) [not necessarily human]; x_1 displays personality/a persona. See also {nanmu}, {ninmu}, {remna}, {zukte}, {sevzi}. preri experimental gismu x_1 is a non-binary-gendered parent of x_2; x_1, which does not subscribe/follow the gender binary (could be hermaphroditic, intersex, asexual, nongendered, transgender, etc.), begets/sires/acts parentally toward x_2; [not necessarily biological] Specifies {rirni} so as to be co-equal to but neither {patfu} nor {mamta}. See also: {dinti}, {rirni}, {mamta}, {patfu}, {nunmu}. preti gismu -ret- -rei- x_1 (quoted text) is a question/query about subject x_2 by questioner x_3 to audience x_4. See also {nabmi}, {danfu}, {ciksi}, {frati}, {spuda}, {cpedu}. prije gismu -pij- x_1 is wise/sage about matter x_2 (abstraction) to observer x_3. See also {bebna}. prina gismu -pri- x_1 is a print/impression/image on/in surface x_2 of/made by/using tool/press/implement/object x_3. See also {cukta}, {papri}, {pelji}, {pixra}, {ciska}, {danre}, {barna}. pritu gismu x_1 is to the right/right-hand side of x_2 which faces/in-frame-of-reference x_3. Also: x_3 is the standard of orientation for x_2. See also cmavo list {ri'u}, {mlana}, {crane}, {trixe}, {farna}, {zunle}. proga experimental gismu x_1 is a program, computer application for doing x_2 (clause) See also {skami}, {tutci}. prosa gismu -ros- -ro'a- x_1 is prose about plot/theme/subject x_2 by author x_3 for intended audience x_4. Non-poetic written text, without intentional rhyme or meter; x_2 may be a convention rather than a subject. See also {cfika}, {lisri}, {cukta}, {pemci}, {finti}. pruce gismu -ruc- -ru'e- x_1 is a process with inputs x_2, outputs/results x_3, passing through steps/stages x_4. x_2 resource (= {selru'e}, but also {ru'etci}, (ru'er-/ruc- or selru'e-/selruc- modifying:) selxaksu, selsabji, livla). See also cmavo list {pu'e}, {farvi}, {tadji}, {grute}, {tcini}. pruni gismu -pun- (adjective:) x_1 is elastic/springy. See also {ckabu}, {tcena}. pruri experimental gismu x_1 itches at locus x_2 See also: {rakcro} pruxi gismu -rux- -ru'i- x_1 is spiritual/pertains to the soul in nature [either energy or being]; x_1 is ghostly/ethereal. Also soul (= {ruxse'i}). See also {censa}, {lijda}, {mucti}, {xadni}. pulce gismu -puc- -pu'e- x_1 is dust/precipitate [suspensible solid] from x_2 in medium/on surface x_3. See also te {zalvi}, {danmo}, {purmo}, {sligu}. pulji gismu x_1 is a police officer/[enforcer/vigilante] enforcing law(s)/rule(s)/order x_2. Police officer, as an agent of authority (= {ca'irpulji}, {ka'irpulji}), as part of a police force (= {puljysoi}, as part of {puljyselsoi}); military police (= {jempulji}, {bilpulji}). See also {catni}, {sonci}, {bilni}, {flalu}, {bandu}, {jemna}, {zekri}, {krati}. pulni gismu x_1 is a pulley [tool] for performing action/function x_2 rotating on axle x_3. See also {tutci}, {xislu}, {vraga}. punji gismu -puj- -pu'i- x_1 (agent) puts/places/sets x_2 on/at surface/locus x_3. See also {cpacu}, {lebna}, {cpana}, {batke}, {setca}. punli gismu -pul- x_1 is a swelling/protrusion/convexity [shape/form] at/in/on x_2, of material x_3. (adjective:) x_1 is swollen. See also {balji}, {cmana}, {plana}. pupsu experimental gismu x_1 is a waterfall (geological and hydrological, semi-permanent feature) with source/flowing fluid x_2 (fluid need not be water), with rock/terrain characteristics/grade (slope)/features x_3 in potential (gravitational well/field) x_4; mass/quantity of fluid x2 flows over feature x3 so as to fall /tumble down it (continuously) Despite the gloss, the waterfall need not constitute falling water specifically, just a falling-tumbling fluid. x3 might be (but is not necessarily strictly) a terrain feature underlying the flow of the fluid. Proposed short rafsi: -pup-. Confer: {falri'e}, {jacfa'u}, {jacfalstu}. purci gismu -pur- -pru- x_1 is in the past of/earlier than/before x_2 in time sequence; x_1 is former; x_2 is latter. Time ordering only (use lidne otherwise); aorist in that x_1 may overlap in time with x_2 as long as it starts before, x_1 starts before x_2 but is continuing during x_2 (= {cfaprucabna}); non-aorist before, i.e. x_1 is over/ended before x_2 starts (= {fampru}), x_1 is completed before x_2 starts (= {mulpru}). See also {lidne}, {balvi}, {cabna}, {farna}. purdi gismu -pud- x_1 is a garden/tended/cultivated field of family/community/farmer x_2 growing plants/crop x_3. Orchard (= {ricpurdi}). See also {foldi}, {cange}, {panka}. purmo gismu -pum- -pu'o- x_1 is a powder of material x_2. Flour (= {grupu'o}, {xripu'o}). See also {pulce}, {zalvi}. racli gismu x_1 (action/activity/behavior) is sane/rational by standard x_2. See also {fenki}. ractu gismu x_1 is a rabbit/hare/[doe] of species/breed x_2. See also {mabru}, {kerlo}. radno gismu -ra'o- x_1 is x_2 radian(s) [metric unit] in angular measure (default is 1) by standard x_3. Measured in degrees ({julra'o}); right ascension astronomical measurement. (= {cacryra'o}). See also {jganu}, {kilto}, {centi}, {decti}, {dekto}, {femti}, {gigdo}, {gocti}, {gotro}, {gutci}, {litce}, {megdo}, {mikri}, {milti}, {minli}, {nanvi}, {petso}, {picti}, {terto}, {xatsi}, {xecto}, {xexso}, {zepti}, {zetro}. rafsi gismu -raf- x_1 is an affix/suffix/prefix/combining-form for word/concept x_2, form/properties x_3, language x_4. See also {valsi}, {lujvo}, {pagbu}. ragbi experimental gismu x_1 is a game of rugby See {esporte}, {se} {kelci} ragve gismu -rav- x_1 is located across/on the other side of gap/boundary x_2 from x_3; x_1 is opposite (fi) x_3. Also: x_1 is over there (across/beyond zo'e); directly across/beyond a boundary/gap, generally at the shortest plausible distance on the other side of the boundary. See also {dukti}, {kuspe}, {bancu}, {kruca}, {cripu}, {pagre}. rakle experimental gismu x_1 is an atomic element in group x_2 [usually, vertical column; denotes electron configuration and, thereby, chemical similarity with vertical neighbors] and period x_3 [usually, horizontal row; denotes similarity in size with horizontal neighbors, as well as having the same number and type of electron shells as them] and belonging to other 'class'/'category'/'type'/having other properties x_4 according to scheme/organization pattern/standard/periodic table x_5. x4 can be any category of similar elements, such as (but not limited to): metals, conductors, gases (at STP), or those elements which obey some sort of pattern following certain atomic/physical/chemical characteristics (such as first iönization energy, stability of nucleus, abnormalities in electron configuration according to naïve expectations, etc.). Groups may (presently) be hard to name (or unsystematic in such) since the periodic table may be infinitely large such that it is equipped with an infinite number of groups between any two mutually nonidentical groups. For now, use cmevla or brivla for designating groups; optionally, pick a representative member of that group. Periods can be designated similarly or by number (counting by ones from one (being the period containing hydrogen)). See also: {ratykle}, {ratniklesi} for non-gismu options; {ratni}, {klesi}, {navni}, {kliru}, {cidro}, {tabno}, {kijno}, {gapci}, {xukmi} rakso gismu x_1 reflects Iraqi culture/nationality in aspect x_2. See also {xrabo}. raktu gismu -ra'u- x_1 (object/person/event/situation) troubles/disturbs x_2 (person) causing problem(s) x_3. Also afflicts, is disruptive to, troublesome; x_1/x_3 are a care to x_2, x_2 is troubled by/cares about x_1/x_3 (= {selra'u} for reordered places). See also {dicra}, {fanza}, {zunti}, {kurji}, {xanka}, {nabmi}. ralci gismu -rac- x_1 is delicate/fragile/subtle/refined in property x_2 (ka). Easily damaged or rendered less pleasing/pure/effective. See also {jdari}, {ranti}, {tsali}, {milxe}, {kukte}. ralju gismu -ral- x_1 is principal/chief/leader/main/[staple], most significant among x_2 (set) in property x_3 (ka). Staple (= {ralselpra}); general/admiral/president/principal leader (= {ralja'a}, {ralterbe'e}; use additional terms to distinguish among these); also primary, prime, (adverb:) chiefly, principally, mainly; (x_2 is complete specification of set). See also {vajni}, te {bende}, {minde}, {lidne}, {jatna}, {jitro}, {gidva}, {midju}. ralte gismu -ra'e- x_1 retains/keeps/holds x_2 in its possession. See also {cirko}, {rinju}, {ponse}, {jgari}, {pinfu}, {stali}, {curmi}. randa gismu -rad- x_1 yields/gives way/surrenders to x_2 (force/agent) under conditions x_3. See also {jdari}, {renvi}, {ranti}, se {bapli}. rango gismu -rag- x_1 is a/the body organ [body-part] of body/species x_2 performing function x_3. Also sweetmeat (= {ragdja}). See also {besna}, {livga}. ranji gismu -ra'i- x_1 (event/state) continues/persists over interval x_2; x_1 (property - ka) is continuous over x_2. See also {temci}, {kuspe}, {renvi}, {cedra}, {citsi}, {manfo}, {vitci}, {cukla}, {fliba}, {preja}, {tcena}. ranmi gismu -ram- x_1 is a myth/legend, a culturally significant story about x_2 in mythos x_3 of culture x_4. Also: x_1 is mythical/fairy tale; used adjectivally for non-humanoid creatures (= {ramda'u}) of story/myth/legend/religion, e.g. dragon; fairy tale (= {veryranmi}). See also {lijda}, {lisri}, {crida}. ransu gismu x_1 is a quantity of/contains/is made of bronze of composition including x_2. See also {jinme}, {tunka}, {lastu}. ranti gismu -ran- x_1 is soft/malleable/moldable/yielding to force x_2 in conditions x_3. See also {ralci}, {jdari}, {lakse}, {randa}, {gradu}. ranxi gismu -rax- x_1 is ironic(al)/contrary to expectation x_2 in state/property/aspect x_3. See also {dukti}, {frica}, {cizra}. rapli gismu -rap- x_1 [action] repeats/is repeated for a total of x_2 (quantity) occurrences. Practice (= {rapyzu'e}, {rapxelcli}, {rapyzukmo'i}). See also cmavo list {roi}, {cafne}, {krefu}, {fukpi}, {pilji}, {xruti}. rarna gismu -rar- x_1 is natural/spontaneous/instinctive, not [consciously] caused by person(s). See also {rutni}, {jinzi}, {nurma}, {stati}. ratcu gismu x_1 is a rat of species/breed x_2. See also {smacu}. ratni gismu -rat- x_1 is an atom of element/atomic number x_2 of isotope number/atomic weight x_3. (cf. {kantu} for a basic unit of a property or activity; {selci} for a basic physical subunit, generally of a mass) rebla gismu -reb- x_1 is a/the tail/appendix [body-part] of x_2; [metaphor: trailing, following portion/appendage]. See also {nalci}, {pimlu}, se {lidne}, {trixe}, {birka}, {jimca}. rectu gismu -rec- -re'u- x_1 is a quantity of/contains meat/flesh from source/animal x_2. See also {sluji}. rekto experimental gismu x_1 gets rekt by x_2 with insult x_3 (quoted text) remna gismu -rem- -re'a- x_1 is a human/human being/man (non-specific gender-free sense); (adjective:) x_1 is human. See also {nanmu}, {ninmu}, {prenu}. renro gismu -rer- -re'o- x_1 throws/launches/casts/hurls x_2 to/at/in direction x_3 (propulsion derives internally to x_1). (cf. {cecla} (more general term), {danti}) renvi gismu -rev- -re'i- x_1 survives/endures/undergoes/abides/lasts/persists through x_2 for interval/duration x_3. Also lasts out, withstands; x_1 persists/lasts for duration x_3; (adjective:) x_1 is tough/durable. See also {ranji}, {kuspe}, {randa}, {lifri}, {stali}, {temci}. respa gismu -res- x_1 is a reptile of species/breed x_2. See also {danlu}, {banfi}, {since}. rexsa experimental gismu x_1 is a dinosaur [specific: only clade Dinosauria] of type x_2 living in era x_3. A gismu version of {dinsauru}; contrast with {dinso}. Includes birds. Proposed short rafsi: -rex-. Preferred to {reksa} (for the sake of short rafsi). See also: {ketslau}. ricfu gismu -rif- -cfu- x_1 is rich/wealthy in goods/possessions/property/aspect x_2. See also {solji}, {banzu}, {dukse}, {pindi}. rigni gismu -rig- x_1 is repugnant to/causes disgust to x_2 under conditions x_3. See also {djica}, {nelci}, {trina}, {vamtu}, {xebni}, {pluka}. rijno gismu -rij- x_1 is made of/contains/is a quantity of silver/argentum (Ag); [metaphor: valuable, tarnishing]. See also {solji}. rilti gismu -ril- x_1 (sequence/non-text quote) is a rhythm/beat of music/expressive form x_2. Not necessarily oscillatory/regular pattern. See also {damri}, {pemci}, {tonga}, {zgike}, {slilu}, {dikni}, {sanga}, {morna}. rimni gismu -rim- x_1 rhymes/alliterates with x_2 in language/phonetics x_3, matching sound correspondence x_4 (ka). Broad meaning of rhyme - any matching sound correspondence. See also {pemci}, {sanga}. rinci gismu x_1 liquid/fluid drains/strains/flushes from source x_2 through drain/strainer x_3 by force x_4. x_4 is usually gravity. See also {pambe}, {tisna}, {setca}, {flecu}, {muvdu}, {ganxo}, {rirxe}. rindo experimental gismu x_1 is/reflects/pertains to Native American/Amerindian/First Nations person(s) ['race'; generalized] culture/status in aspect x_2, of subtype/particular subcategory/group/tribe x_3, by definition/standard/societal classification system x_4 Makes no implications of relative status etc. See also: {tutle}, {kapli}, {maska}, {xispo}, {abniena}, {niengatu}, {nienke'a}, {ancinabe}, {tsalagi}, {siksika}. rinju gismu -ri'u- x_1 is restrained/held [back]/constrained/kept by restraint x_2 against x_3 (event). Also: x_2 is a restraint/binding for x_1, x_2 keeps/restrains/holds [back]/constrains x_1 from x_3 (= {selri'u} for reordered places); agentive restraint (= {ri'urgau}, {ri'urzu'e}). See also {zifre}, {ralte}, {pinfu}, {kavbu}, {fanta}, {jgari}, {jimte}, {bapli}, {curmi}, {kluza}, {tagji}. rinka gismu -rik- -ri'a- x_1 (event/state) effects/physically causes effect x_2 (event/state) under conditions x_3. x_1 is a material condition for x_2; x_1 gives rise to x_2. See also {gasnu}, {krinu}, {nibli}, te {zukte}, se {jalge}, {bapli}, {jitro}, cmavo list {ri'a}, {mukti}, {ciksi}, {xruti}. rinsa gismu x_1 (agent) greets/hails/[welcomes/says hello to]/responds to arrival of x_2 in manner x_3 (action). (cf. {friti} for welcome/hospitality, cmavo list {coi}, cmavo list {co'o}) rirci gismu x_1 [member] is rare/unusual/uncommon/atypical in property x_2 (ka) among members of x_3 (set). (x_3 is complete specification of set); (cf. {cizra}, {fadni}, {cafne}, {kampu}, {cnano} - the generalized opposite to any/all of these concepts) rirni gismu -rir- x_1 is a parent of/raises/rears x_2; x_1 mentors/acts parental toward child/protege x_2. See also {rorci}, {mamta}, {patfu}, {sidju}, {dzena}, {famti}, {verba}, {bersa}. rirxe gismu -ri'e- x_1 is a river of land mass x_2, draining watershed x_3 into x_4/terminating at x_4. (cf. {flecu}, {senta} for most metaphorical aspects; {daplu}, {djacu}, {lalxu}, {xamsi}, {rinci}, {naxle}) rismi gismu -ris- x_1 is a quantity of rice [a type of grain] of strain/cultivar x_2. See also {gurni}. risna gismu x_1 is a/the heart [body-part] of x_2; [emotional/shape metaphors are NOT culturally neutral]. (adjective:) x_1 is cardiac; emotional 'heart' (= {cnise'i}). See also {pambe}, {ciblu}. ritli gismu -ri'i- x_1 is a rite/ceremony/ritual for purpose/goal x_2, by custom/in community x_3, with form/rules x_4. [also: x_1 is formal, Legal. x_1 is 'going through the motions']; x_4 constraints/customs; See also {lijda}, {malsi}, {flalu}, {javni}, {tcaci}, {clite}, {junri}. rivbi gismu -riv- x_1 avoids/evades/shuns/escapes/skirts [fate] x_2 (event) through action/state x_3 (event). Also detours around, stays away from; (x_1 is normally an object, but may be an event). See also bandu which is not necessarily successful, {fanta}, which is agentive, se jersi which implies an opposing agent, {sisku}, {kalte}, {fapro}. rokci gismu -rok- -ro'i- x_1 is a quantity of/is made of/contains rock/stone of type/composition x_2 from location x_3. x_2: composition including x_2, which need not be complete specification. See also {kunra}, {jemna}, {canre}. romge gismu -rog- x_1 is a highly reflective/polished non-tarnishing metallic surface, of metal x_2 [often chromium]. See also {jinme}. romlo experimental gismu x_1 reflects Romani/Romany/gypsy culture/nationality/language in aspect x_2 See also {kulnu}, {xindo} ronte experimental gismu x_1 is a rodent [can be a member of eutherian mammal Rodentia; semantic broadening might subjectively generalize the concept somewhat] of subtaxon/type/genus/species/breed/variety x_2 gismu version of: {ratcnrodentia}, {rontnrodentia}. Meant for any rodent in general (more general than {ratcu}, {smacu}). Semantic broadening may allow for any "small, scurrying mammal" to be so named. For the subjective generalization of concept to any "small scurrying mammal" made explicit, unambiguous, and clear: {rontysmimabru}. ropno gismu -ron- -ro'o- x_1 reflects European culture/nationality/geography/Indo-European languages in aspect x_2. See also {brito}. rorci gismu -ror- x_1 engenders/procreates/begets x_2 with coparent x_3. See also {grute}, {gutra}, {rirni}, se {panzi}, {mamta}, {patfu}, {tarbi}, {bersa}, {ferti}, {jbena}, {sovda}. rotsu gismu -rot- -tsu- -ro'u- x_1 is thick in dimension/direction x_2 by standard x_3; [relatively long in smallest dimension]. Also stout. See also {barda}, {cinla}, {ganra}, {clani}, {condi}, {plana}, {gutci}, {minli}. rozgu gismu -roz- -zgu- x_1 is a rose [flower - characterized by prickly stem/fragrance] of species/strain x_2. Roses are not all pink; avoid using for color rose, which might be {labyxu'e}. See also {spati}, {xunre}. ruble gismu -rub- -ble- x_1 is weak/feeble/frail in property/quality/aspect x_2 (ka) by standard x_3. See also {carmi}, {vlipa}, {tsali}, {kandi}, {kandi}, {milxe}. rufsu gismu -ruf- x_1 is rough/coarse/uneven/[grainy/scabrous/rugged] in texture/regularity. Fine-textured (= {tolrufsu}). See also {xutla}, {tengu}, {vitci}. runme gismu -rum- x_1 melts [becomes liquid from solid state] at temperature x_2 and pressure x_3. x_1 runs (= {rumfle}). See also {dunja}, {febvi}, {lunsa}, {bisli}. runta gismu x_1 dissolves in solvent x_2 forming solution/[suspension] x_3 under conditions x_4. Suspension (= {pucyteryrunta}, {pu'exre}). See also {litki}, {mixre}, {sligu}, {sudga}. rupnu gismu -rup- -ru'u- x_1 is measured in major-money-units (dollar/yuan/ruble) as x_2 (quantity), monetary system x_3. Also pound, rupee, franc, mark, yen; x_1 is generally a price/cost/value. See also {jdini}, {sicni}, {jdima}, {vecnu}, {fepni}, {dekpu}, {gutci}, {minli}, {merli}, {bunda}, {kramu}. rusko gismu -ruk- -ru'o- x_1 reflects Russian culture/nationality/language in aspect x_2. See also {softo}, {slovo}. rutni gismu -run- x_1 is an artifact; x_1 is artificial; x_1 is made/caused by people/se kulnu x_2; x_1 is man-made. See also {rarna}, se {zbasu}, {gundi}, {slasi}. sabji gismu -sab- x_1 [source] provides/supplies/furnishes x_2 [supply/commodity] to x_3 [recipient]. Agentive supply (= {sabgau}, {sabzu'e}). See also {krasi}, {sorcu}. sabnu gismu x_1 is a cabin of vehicle x_2. See also {bloti}, {marce}, {vinji}, {karce}. sacki gismu x_1 is a match [incendiary device] made of x_2. See also {fagri}, {jelca}. saclu gismu x_1 (me'o) is the [decimal/binary] equivalent of fractional x_2 (me'o) in base x_3 (quantity). Conversion from fractions to decimal-point based notation. See also {namcu}, {frinu}. sadjo gismu -djo- x_1 reflects Saudi Arabian culture/nationality in aspect x_2. See also {xrabo}. sakci gismu -sak- x_1 sucks/is suction/vacuum/relatively low pressure of fluid/gas x_2 relative to high pressure x_3. Also suck object/fluid (= {sakcpu} or {sakmuvgau}). See also {cokcu}, {lacpu}, {flecu}. sakli gismu -sal- x_1 slides/slips/glides on x_2. x_2 is slick/slippery to/for x_1 (= {selsakli} for reordered places). See also {mosra}, {fulta}, {skiji}, {xutla}. sakta gismu -sat- x_1 is made of/contains/is a quantity of sugar [sweet edible] from source x_2 of composition x_3. Also sucrose, fructose, glucose, galactose, lactose, etc.; saccharine/aspartame/sugar substitute ({basysakta} or {satybasti}, {ticysakta}); x_3: composition including x_3, which need not be complete specification. See also {silna}, {titla}. salci gismu -sla- x_1 celebrates/recognizes/honors x_2 (event/abstract) with activity/[party] x_3. x_3 (and {nunsla}) festival/fiesta/celebration/occasion/fair/Holiday (some senses). Not limited to the ameliorative interpretation of 'celebrate': funeral (= {mrobixsla}). See also {sinma}, {jbena}. salpo gismu -sa'o- x_1 is sloped/inclined/slanted/aslant with angle x_2 to horizon/frame x_3. Also steep (= {tcesa'o}); normally implies non-rectilinear. See also {kurfa}, {tutci}. salri experimental gismu x_1 is the differintegral of x_2 with respect to x_3 of order x_4 with starting point x_5 Definition of which differintegral operator is being used is context dependent. Output x1 is a function, not a value (that is, it is f rather than f(x)); it must be specified/restricted to a value in order to be a value. x2 is likewise a function. If the function has only one variable, x3 defaults to that variable; when x2 is physical, without context, time will probably usually be assumed as the default of x3 (but may be made explicit by {temsalri}). Positive values of x4 are integrals, negative values are derivatives, and zero is identity; at the least, any real value may be supplied for x4; x4 has no default value. Useful for making lujvo for physics, for specifying career/total/sum versus peak/instantaneous value, for distinguishing between instantaneous versus average values/quantities, for specifying rates, generalized densities (including pressure), "per" for smooth quantities, etc. See also: {salrixo} (synonymous zi'evla). salta gismu x_1 (mass) is a quantity of salad [food] with ingredients/components including x_2. x_2 is in x_1, an ingredient/part/component of x_1. See also {mixre}, {stasu}. samcu gismu x_1 is a quantity of cassava/taro/manioc/tapioca/yam [edible starchy root] of species/strain x_2. See also {patlu}, {genja}, {jalna}. sampu gismu -sap- x_1 is simple/unmixed/uncomplicated in property x_2 (ka). See also {pluja}, {curve}, {frili}, {manfo}. sanbu experimental gismu x_1 strolls/leisurely walks sance gismu -sna- x_1 is sound produced/emitted by x_2. x_2 sounds (intransitive verb). See also {savru}, {tirna}, {voksa}, {siclu}, {slaka}. sanga gismu -sag- -sa'a- x_1 sings/chants x_2 [song/hymn/melody/melodic sounds] to audience x_3. Melody (= {sagzgi}, {ralsagzgi}), harmony (= {saxsagzgi}), harmonize/sing harmony (= {saxsa'a}), song (= {selsa'a}). See also {pemci}, {rimni}, {rilti}, {siclu}. sanji gismu -saj- x_1 is conscious/aware of x_2 (object/abstract); x_1 discerns/recognizes x_2 (object/abstract). [also: x_1 knows Of. x_2 (one sense); awareness implies some amount of mental processing above and beyond mere sensory detection, and may also be applied to mental relationships that are not detected by the senses]; See also {menli}, {morji}, {ganse}, {sipna}, {cikna}. sanli gismu -sa'i- x_1 stands [is vertically oriented] on surface x_2 supported by limbs/support/pedestal x_3. x_1 is standing; x_1 stands up; x_1 is erect/vertical/upright; x_1 bows/bends over (= {krosa'i}, {krosa'ibi'o}, {plosa'i}); frame of reference is (approximate) perpendicularity to the surface, and not to a gravity field. See also {kamju}, {sraji}, {tuple}, {zbepi}, {sarji}. sanmi gismu -sai- x_1 (mass) is a meal composed of dishes including x_2. x_2 is a course/dish of meal x_1 (= {selsai} for reordered places). See also {barja}, {stasu}, {gusta}, {sanso}. sanso gismu x_1 is a sauce/topping/gravy/frosting for use with x_2, containing ingredient(s) including x_3. x_3 is in x_1, an ingredient/part/component of sauce x_1. See also {sanmi}, {mixre}, {stasu}. santa gismu x_1 is an umbrella/parasol shielding x_2 from x_3, made of material x_4, supported by x_5. See also {carvi}, {solri}. sarcu gismu -sa'u- x_1 (abstract) is necessary/required for continuing state/process x_2 under conditions x_3. Also factually necessary, necessity, prerequisite, condition, precondition. See also cmavo list {sau}, {nitcu}. sarji gismu -sra- x_1 supports/holds up/is underpinning of/[helps] x_2 against force/opposition x_3 with/by means x_4. Also aids; (adjective:) x_1 is dependable, reliable (such reliability may be transient; this is not the usual sense of 'reliable' or 'dependable'); (x_2 is object/event). See also {bradi}, {darlu}, {fapro}, {sidju}, {tugni}, {bongu}, {ckana}, {cpana}, {loldi}, {sanli}, {selfu}. sarlu gismu x_1 is a spiral/helix/whorl/[vortex] [shape/form] with limits x_2, of dimensionality x_3. See also {klupe}, {korcu}, {tarmi}. sarni experimental gismu x_1 is a three-angled shape/form defined by set of corners/vertices x_2, sides/dimensions x_3 see also {cibjgatai} sarxe gismu -sax- x_1 is harmonious/concordant/in agreement/concord with x_2 in property x_3 (ka). See also {satci}, {panpi}, {mapti}, {tugni}, {ckini}. saske gismu -ske- x_1 (mass of facts) is science of/about subject matter x_2 based on methodology x_3. Not limited to science as derived by the scientific method, but pertaining to any body of usually-coherent knowledge garnered/gathered/assembled by a consistent methodology. See also {datni}, {fatci}, {djuno}, {cipra}, {pensi}, {jimpe}. satci gismu x_1 [measurement/match] is exact/precise to precision x_2 in property/quantity x_3 (ka/ni). See also {sarxe}, {dunli}, {merli}, {mapti}, {kancu}, {mintu}. satre gismu -sa'e- x_1 (agent) strokes/rubs/pets x_2 with x_3. Pet (= {pamsa'e}). See also {mosra}, {pencu}. savru gismu -sav- -vru- x_1 is a noise/din/clamor [sensory input without useful information] to x_2 via sensory channel x_3. See also {sance}, {cladu}, {kerlo}, {smaji}, {tirna}, {siclu}. sazri gismu -saz- x_1 operates/drives/runs x_2 [apparatus/machine] with goal/objective/use/end/function x_3. See also {gidva}, {xlura}, {pilno}, {tutci}, {jitro}, {gunka}. sefsi experimental gismu x_1 is/are related to itself/himself/herself/themselves by relation x_2 Compare with {sevzi} and {simxu}. -se'i- proposed as rafsi for "sefsi" since "sevzi" doesn't really need much a final rafsi. sefta gismu -sfe- x_1 is surface/face [bounded shape/form] of [higher-dimension] object x_2, on side x_3, edges x_4. Also x_4 bounds. See also {crane}, {flira}, {plita}, {bliku}. sekre experimental gismu x_1 is a secretary of company or boss x_2 selci gismu -sle- x_1 is a cell/atom/unit/molecule of x_2; x_1 is an indivisible, most basic subunit of x_2. (x_2 generally has mass nature); (cf. {kantu} for properties, activities; {ratni}, {gradu}) selfu gismu -sef- -se'u- x_1 (agent) serves x_2 with service x_3 (activity); x_1 is a servant (noun) of x_2 performing x_3. See also {sidju}, {sarji}, {gunka}. semto gismu -sme- x_1 reflects Semitic [metaphor: Middle-Eastern] language/culture/nationality in aspect x_2. Semitic includes Arabic, Hebrew, Aramaic, and Ethiopian, among others. See also {xrabo}. senci gismu -sec- x_1 sneezes (intransitive verb). See also {bilma}, {kafke}. sengi experimental gismu x_1 is an elephant shrew/jumping shrew/sengi (member of Afrotherian mammal order: Macroscelidea) of subtaxon/type/genus/species/variety/breed x_2 Does not include shrews, nor rabbits/pikas. Rodents (including rats and mice) are in a completely different order of mammals (although they belong to the same infraclass) and therefore cannot be appropriately referred to by this word. See also: {carfu}, {ratcu}, {smacu}, {ractu}. senpi gismu -sen- x_1 doubts/is dubious/doubtful/skeptical/questions that x_2 (du'u) is true. Also: x_2 is doubtful/dubious/questionable (= {selsenpi} for reordered places). See also {jinvi}, {krici}, {djuno}, {birti}. senta gismu -set- x_1 is a layer/stratum [shape/form] of x_2 [material] within structure/continuum/composite x_3. See also {flecu}, {nenri}, {rirxe}, {sepli}, {snuji}, {jbini}, {bitmu}, {sruri}, {serti}. senva gismu -sev- -sne- x_1 dreams about/that x_2 (fact/idea/event/state); x_2 is a dream/reverie of x_1. Dream/reverie (= {selsne}). See also {sipna}, {xanri}. sepli gismu -sep- -sei- x_1 is apart/separate from x_2, separated by partition/wall/gap/interval/separating medium x_3. Also aloof (= {jiksei}); alone (= {rolsmisei} meaning apart or unlike all others of its kind; {pavysei}, {seirpavmei} meaning "only" or "one alone" - do not use when talking about, for example, two people who are alone); x_3 space. See also {bitmu}, {snuji}, {senta}, {fendi}, {curve}, {jinsa}, {bitmu}, {marbi}. serti gismu -ser- x_1 are stairs/stairway/steps for climbing structure x_2 with steps x_3. See also {stapa}, {loldi}, {senta}. sesre experimental gismu x_1 reflects USSR (Soviet Union)/Soviet culture/Soviet nationality in aspect x_2 {softo} doesn't mean Soviet ! Besides, some modern Russians hate Soviet period of their country. What is more, Russian Empire, USSR and Russian Federation are three different countries and CIS is not a country at all. Cf. {softo}, {rusko}, {vukro}, {slovo}, {gugdesu'u}, {soviet}. setca gismu -se'a- x_1 (agent) inserts/interposes/puts/deposits x_2 into interior x_3/into among/between members of x_3. Insertion need not imply a significant degree of 'filling'; inject (= {je'erse'a}); syringe/needle (= {se'arterje'e}, {je'erse'atci}, {jestu'u} or {tu'urjesni}); also pour, inflate, stuff, fill. See also {rinci}, {tisna}, {punji}, {jbini}, {nenri}, {jmina}, {culno}, {kunti}, {catlu}. sevzi gismu -sez- -se'i- x_1 is a self/ego/id/identity-image of x_2. See also cmavo list {mi}, {prenu}, {menli}, {jgira}. sfani gismu x_1 is a fly [a small non-stinging flying insect] of species/breed x_2. See also {cinki}, {bifce}. sfasa gismu -sfa- x_1 (agent) punishes x_2 for infraction x_3 (event/state/action) with punishment x_4 (event/state). Also chastise, castigate, chasten, discipline, correct (one sense); also x_4 penalty. See also {cnemu}, {pleji}, {venfu}, {zekri}, {canja}, {dunda}, {jdima}, {jerna}, {kargu}, {prali}, {dapma}, {cirko}, {jinga}. sfofa gismu -sfo- x_1 is a sofa/couch (noun). See also {nilce}. sfubu gismu -sub- -su'u- x_1 dives/swoops [manner of controlled falling] to x_2 from x_3. See also {farlu} sibli experimental gismu x_1 is a hissing sound See {bacru}, {cusku}, {sanga}, {cladu}, {since} siclu gismu -sil- x_1 [sound source] whistles/makes whistling sound/note/tone/melody x_2. See also {sance}, {tonga}, {sanga}, {zgike}, {savru}. sicni gismu -si'i- x_1 is a coin/token/is specie issued by x_2 having value x_3 of composition including x_4. See also {fepni}, {jdini}, {rupnu}. sicpi experimental gismu x_1 is rain of composition including x_2. Cf. {bratu}, {snime}, {carvi}. sidbo gismu -sib- -si'o- x_1 (idea abstract) is an idea/concept/thought about x_2 (object/abstract) by thinker x_3. Also (adjective:) x_1 is ideal/ideational. See also {ciksi}, {jijnu}, {mucti}, {jinvi}, {nabmi}, {pensi}, {xanri}, cmavo list {si'o}. sidju gismu -dju- x_1 helps/assists/aids object/person x_2 do/achieve/maintain event/activity x_3. See also cmavo list {si'u}, {rirni}, {sarji}, {vipsi}, {ferti}, {selfu}. sigja gismu -sig- x_1 is a cigar/cigarette/cigarillo made from tobacco/smokable substance x_2 by x_3. See also {danmo}, {jelca}, {tanko}, {marna}. sigma experimental gismu x_1 is the standard variation of/in data set/distribution x_2; x_1 is the quantified (in)accuracy of the results x_2 given by some observation or measurement (procedure), calculated from/by standard x_3 Technically, there really is only one possible standard deviation, but in practice, it is often approximate via some means x3 (such as assuming that the distribution is Gaussian, even if it actually is only a finite data sample x2). sikta experimental gismu x_1 affects x_2 in manner x_3 (nu / ka-of-x_2) See {rinka}, {gasnu}, {galfi}, {stika} silka gismu -sik- x_1 is a quantity of/contains/is made of silk produced by x_2. See also {curnu}, {bukpu}, {cilta}. silna gismu x_1 is a portion/quantity of salt from source x_2, of composition including x_3. See also {sakta}. simlu gismu -mlu- x_1 seems/appears to have property(ies) x_2 to observer x_3 under conditions x_4. Also: x_1 seems like it has x_2 to x_3; suggest belief/observation (= {mlugau}, {mluti'i}); looks like/resembles (= {smimlu}, {mitmlu}). See also {catlu}, {viska}, {simsa}, {zgana}, {ganse}, {jarco}. simsa gismu -smi- x_1 is similar/parallel to x_2 in property/quantity x_3 (ka/ni); x_1 looks/appears like x_2. Also: x_1 is a likeness/image of x_2; x_1 and x_2 are alike; similarity and parallel differ primarily in emphasis. See also {dunli}, {frica}, {mintu}, {panra}, {simlu}, {vrici}. simxu gismu -sim- -si'u- x_1 (set) has members who mutually/reciprocally x_2 (event [x_1 should be reflexive in 1+ sumti]). Members of x_1 do to each other/one another x_2, and in return do x_2; x_1 (plural set) do the same thing x_2 to each other. See also {kampu}, {mintu}. since gismu x_1 is a snake/serpent of species/breed x_2. See also {curnu}, {danlu}, {respa}, {vindu}. sinma gismu -si'a- x_1 esteems/respects/venerates/highly regards x_2 [object of respect]. Also: x_2 is respected/esteemed/celebrated (= {selsi'a} for reordered places). See also {banli}, {censa}, {misno}, {nelci}, {prami}, {salci}, {jgira}. sinso gismu x_1 is the trigonometric sine of angle/arcsine x_2. See also {tanjo}. sinxa gismu -sni- x_1 is a sign/symbol/signal representing/referring/signifying/meaning x_2 to observer x_3. Also: x_1 signifies x_2; (adjective:) x_1 is significant/meaningful/of import; signal an action (= {sniti'i}), connotation (= se {sibyti'isni}, {sibyti'ismu}). See also {lerfu}, {tcita}, {barna}, {mifra}, {smuni}. sipna gismu -sip- x_1 is asleep (adjective); x_1 sleeps/is sleeping. See also {senva}, {tatpi}, {cikna}, {sanji}. sirji gismu -sir- x_1 is straight/direct/line segment/interval between x_2 and x_3; (adjective:) x_1 is linear. See also {korcu}, {linji}, {kruvi}, {kuspe}. sirxo gismu -six- x_1 reflects Syrian culture/nationality in aspect x_2. See also {xrabo}. sisku gismu -sis- x_1 seeks/searches/looks for property x_2 among set x_3 (complete specification of set). If searching for an object or an event, use tu'a in x_2. See also {cirko}, {kalte}, {kavbu}, {kucli}, {rivbi}, {manci}, {facki}. sisti gismu -sti- x_1 [agent] ceases/stops/halts/ends activity/process/state x_2 [not necessarily completing it]. See also {fanmo}, {mulno}, {cfari}, {denpa}, {fliba}. sitna gismu -sit- x_1 cites/quotes/refers to/makes reference to source x_2 for information/statement x_3 (du'u). See also {krasi}. sivni gismu -siv- x_1 is private/personal/privy/[secret/confidential/confined] to x_2; x_1 is not-public/hidden. Also: x_1 is secret (one sense); x_2 is in the know/in touch with/privy to x_1 (= {selsivni} for reordered places); exclusion can be expressed by na'e(bo) in x_2: excluded/in the dark (= {nalselsivni}). See also {gubni}, {mipri}. skaci gismu x_1 is a skirt/kilt/dress of material x_2; x_1 is skirted [garment open at the bottom; not legged]. A skirted garment may be full length ({pastu}), but must hang below the waist from support above or at the waist. See also {taxfu}, {palku}. skami gismu -sam- x_1 is a computer for purpose x_2. See also {kanji}, {minji}, {pensi}. skapi gismu -kap- x_1 is a pelt/skin/hide/leather from x_2. See also {pilka}, {calku}, {kerfa}. skari gismu -ska- x_1 is/appears to be of color/hue x_2 as perceived/seen by x_3 under conditions x_4. Conditions may include lighting, background, etc.. See also {blanu}, {bunre}, {cicna}, {cinta}, {crino}, {grusi}, {narju}, {nukni}, {pelxu}, {xunre}, {zirpu}, {carmi}, {kandi}, {xekri}, {blabi}. skicu gismu -ski- x_1 tells about/describes x_2 (object/event/state) to audience x_3 with description x_4 (property). See also {lisri}, {tavla}. skiji gismu -sij- x_1 is a ski/skid/skate/runner for surface (of material) x_2 supporting skier/skater/sled/cargo x_3. See also {sakli}, {marce}, {cutci}. skina gismu -kin- x_1 is a cinema/movie/film about x_2 [plot/theme/subject/activity], filmmaker x_3, for audience x_4. Also motion picture; x_2 may be a convention rather than a subject; cartoon/animation (= selxraci'a {skina}); television/tv show (= {tivyskina}, regardless of length, factual content, etc.). See also {tivni}, {vidni}, {pixra}, {finti}. skori gismu -sko- x_1 is cord/cable/rope/line/twine/cordage/woven strands of material x_2. See also {cilta}, {jgena}, {marna}, {bikla}, {linsi}. skoto gismu -kot- -ko'o- x_1 reflects Gaelic/Scottish culture/nationality/language in aspect x_2. Irish (= {sicko'o}), Scottish (= {sunko'o}), Celtic (= {dzeko'o}), Welsh (= {nanko'o}), Breton (= {fasko'o}); since Scottish/Gaelic is only the northern branch of the Celtic tribes, many would prefer a fu'ivla for Celtic; nationalism might also demand a separate fu'ivla for Irish. See also {brito}, {glico}. skuba experimental gismu x_1 is a scuba set skuro gismu -ku'o- x_1 is a groove/trench/furrow [shape/form] in object/surface x_2. See also {plixa}. slabu gismu -sau- x_1 is old/familiar/well-known to observer x_2 in feature x_3 (ka) by standard x_4. This can cover both meanings of old. Old in years, i.e. age, can be conveyed through x_2 = the world, life, existence (= loi nu {zasti}); in usage this has been a common default for ellipsis. However slabu is not the opposite of 'young' (= {nalci'o}, {tolci'o}), but the opposite of 'new' (= {tolni'o}); also ancient (= {tcesau}), age (= {nilsau}); x_2 is used to x_1 (= selsau for reordered places); historic/historical (= {cirsau}, {cirselcedra}; also {vaipru}). (cf. {clani}, {citno}, {cnino}, se {djuno}; not the opposite of {citno}, {djuno}) slaka gismu x_1 is a syllable in language x_2. See also {sance}, {valsi}, {bangu}. slami gismu x_1 is a quantity of/contains/is made of acid of composition x_2; (adjective:) x_1 is acidic. x_2: composition including x_2, which need not be complete specification. See also {slari}, {nimre}. slanu gismu x_1 is a cylinder [shape/form] of material x_2. See also {kamju}, {gunro}. slari gismu -sar- x_1 is sour/tart to observer x_2. See also {slami}, {titla}, {kurki}, {nimre}. slasi gismu -las- x_1 is a quantity of/is made of/contains plastic/polymer of type/component unit(s) x_2. See also {rutni}, {boxfo}, {bukpu}. sligu gismu -lig- x_1 is solid, of composition/material including x_2, under conditions x_3. Conditions include temperature and pressure. See also {runta}, {litki}, {gapci}, {jdari}, {dunja}, {pulce}, {jduli}. slilu gismu -sli- x_1 oscillates at rate/frequency x_2 through set/sequence-of-states x_3 (complete specification). Also (expressible either with desku or slilu): side to side, to and from, back and forth, reciprocal (motion), rotates, revolves. See also {dikni}, {rilti}, {morna}, {desku}, {janbe}, {boxna}. sliri gismu x_1 is a quantity of/contains/is made of sulfur/brimstone (S); [metaphor: foul odor, volcanic]. See also {xukmi}, {panci}, {pelxu}. slovo gismu -lov- -lo'o- x_1 reflects Slavic language/culture/ethos in aspect x_2. See also {softo}, {rusko}, {vukro}. sluji gismu -slu- x_1 is a/the muscle [body-part] controlling x_2, of body x_3; [metaphor: tools of physical power]. (adjective:) x_1/x_2/x_3 is muscular (different senses). See also {rectu}, {xadni}, {zajba}. sluni gismu x_1 is a quantity of/contains onions/scallions of type/cultivar x_2. See also {stagi}. smacu gismu x_1 is a mouse of species/breed x_2. See also {ratcu}. smadi gismu x_1 guesses/conjectures/surmises x_2 (du'u) is true about subject x_3; [epistemology]. Also: x_1 has a hunch that x_2 is true; x_1 imagines x_2 is true; words usable for epistemology typically have a du'u place. See also {djuno}, {facki}, {jijnu}, {sruma}. smaji gismu -sma- x_1 (source) is quiet/silent/[still] at observation point x_2 by standard x_3. See also {kerlo}, {panpi}, {savru}, {tirna}. smaka experimental gismu x_1 feels the taste x_2 See {tasta}, {vrusi}, {ganse}, {palpi}, {viska} smani gismu x_1 is a monkey/ape/simian/baboon/chimpanzee of species/breed x_2. See also {mabru}, {danlu}. smela experimental gismu x_1 is a plum/peach/cherry/apricot/almond/sloe [fruit] (genus Prunus) of species/variety x_2 {zirsmela} for plum, {xunsmela} for cherry, {najysmela} for peach, {pelsmela} for apricot, {ri'orsmela} for almond, {blasmela} for sloe. Cf. {rutrprunu}, {ricrprunu}, {flaume}, {persika}, {rutrceraso}, {birkoku}, {frambesi}, {fragari}, {plise}, {perli}, {rozgu} smoka gismu -smo- x_1 is a sock/stocking [flexible foot and lower leg garment] of material x_2. See also {cutci}, {taxfu}. smuci gismu -muc- x_1 is a spoon/scoop (tool) for use x_2, made of material x_3. See also {dakfu}, {forca}, {tutci}. smuni gismu -mun- -smu- x_1 is a meaning/interpretation of x_2 recognized/seen/accepted by x_3. Referential meaning (={selsni}, {snismu}). See also {jimpe}, {sinxa}, {valsi}, {tanru}, {gismu}, {lujvo}, {cmavo}, {jufra}. smusu experimental gismu x_1 expresses meaning x_2 (du'u/si'o) to addressee/audience x_3 by doing x_4 (property of x_1) Gismu form of {smusku}. The act (x_4) may or may not be linguistic. Proposed rafsi: -sus-. See also {cusku}, {smuni}, {corci} snada gismu -sad- x_1 [agent] succeeds in/achieves/completes/accomplishes x_2 as a result of effort/attempt/try x_3. Also: x_1 reaches x_2; (adjective:) x_1 is successful; x_2 (event/state/achievement). See also {fliba}, {troci}, {jgira}. snanu gismu -nan- x_1 is to the south/southern side of x_2 according to frame of reference x_3. See also {berti}, {stuna}, {stici}, {farna}. snidu gismu -nid- x_1 is x_2 seconds in duration (default is 1 second) by standard x_3. See also {cacra}, {junla}, {mentu}, {tcika}, {centi}, {decti}, {dekto}, {femti}, {gigdo}, {gocti}, {gotro}, {kilto}, {megdo}, {mikri}, {milti}, {nanvi}, {petso}, {picti}, {terto}, {xatsi}, {xecto}, {xexso}, {zepti}, {zetro}. snime gismu -si'e- x_1 is made of/contains/is a quantity/expanse of snow. See also {bratu}, {carvi}, {bisli}. snipa gismu -nip- x_1 adheres/sticks to x_2; (adjective:) x_1 is sticky/gummy/adhesive. Note that x_1 is the adhering surface being claimed; x_2 need not be sticky. See also {tarla}, {viknu}. snuji gismu -nuj- x_1 is a sandwich/layering [not restricted to food] of x_2 sandwiched between x_3. See also {midju}, {nenri}, {sepli}, {senta}, {jbini}, {bitmu}, {sruri}. snura gismu -nur- -nu'a- x_1 is secure/safe from threat x_2 (event). See also {ckape}, {kajde}, {marbi}, {terpa}, {xalni}, {bandu}. snuti gismu -nut- x_1 (event/state) is an accident/unintentional on the part of x_2; x_1 is an accident. See also {zukte}, {cunso}. sobde gismu -sob- -so'e- x_1 is a quantity of soya [grain/bean] of species/strain x_2. See also {dembi}, {gurni}. sodna gismu x_1 is a quantity of/contains/is made of alkali metal of type x_2 [default sodium]. Also potassium, lithium, cesium. Soda. See also {jilka}, {jinme}. sodva gismu -sod- x_1 is made of/contains/is a quantity of a carbonated beverage/soda of flavor/brand x_2. Also: soft drink (though this sometimes includes tea and coffee as distinct from alcoholic beverages which are "hard drinks"). See also {jilka}, {jinme}. softo gismu -sof- x_1 reflects Russian empire/USSR/ex-USSR (Soviet]/CIS culture/nationality in aspect x_2. See also {rusko}, {vukro}, {slovo}. solji gismu -slo- x_1 is a quantity of/contains/is made of gold (Au); [metaphor: valuable, heavy, non-reactive]. See also {ricfu}, {rijno}, {narju}, {pelxu}. solri gismu -sol- x_1 is the sun of home planet x_2 (default Earth) of race x_3; (adjective:) x_1 is solar. 'home planet' refers to a planet which is "home" to a race, but not necessarily the original "home" of a species if that species inhabits many worlds. See also {gusni}, {lunra}, {mluni}, {plini}, {santa}, {terdi}, {tarci}. sombo gismu -som- -so'o- x_1 sows/plants x_2 [crop/plants] at/in x_3. See also {crepu}, {tsiju}. sonci gismu -son- -soi- x_1 is a soldier/warrior/fighter of army x_2. See also {bilni}, {damba}, {jenmi}, {xarci}, {pulji}. sorcu gismu -soc- -sro- x_1 is a store/deposit/supply/reserve of materials/energy x_2 in containment x_3. x_3 need not be a container, but could merely be a site/location restriction; e.g. a heap. The sumti indicates how the supply is identified and distinguished from other occurrences of the stored x_2 that are not part of the store. (cf. {panka}; {vreji} for information storage; {sabji} for a store or reserve that is not necessarily tied to a site, {banxa}, {panka}) sorgu gismu -sog- x_1 is a quantity of sorghum of species/strain x_2. See also {gurni}. sorni experimental gismu x_1 (ka) property of x_2 is metaphorically sufficient as to be equivalent to x_3 (ka). This bridges the gap for the English usage of "so" used in hyperbolic/metaphorical equivalence. For example "My shadow is so small, it (virtually) doesn't exist." sorta experimental gismu x_1 sorta is/does x_2 (nu/ka) under conditions x_3 This is a joke word. Its main use is in the tanru {kinda} {sorta} sovda gismu -sov- -so'a- x_1 is an egg/ovum/sperm/pollen/gamete of/from organism [mother/father] x_2. (poorly metaphorical only due to gender- and species- being unspecified): ovoid, oblate (= {pevyso'aseltai}, but better: {claboi}); egg, specifically female (= {fetso'a}), of a bird (= {cpifetso'a}, {cpiso'a}), of a chicken (= {jipcyfetso'a}, {jipcyso'a}. (but note that Lojban does not require specificity, just as English doesn't for either milk or eggs; "sovda" is fine for most contexts); If fertilized, then {tsiju} or {tarbi}. (cf. {ganti}, {gutra}, {mamta}, {patfu}, {rorci}, {tsiju}, {lanbi}, {tarbi}; also {djine}, {konju} for shape, {tarbi}) spaji gismu -paj- x_1 (event/action abstract) surprises/startles/is unexpected [and generally sudden] to x_2. Also expectation (= {nalspaji}), alarm (= {tepspaji}). See also {manci}, {jenca}, {bredi}, {suksa}. spali gismu x_1 (agent) polishes object/surface x_2 with polish x_3, applied using tool x_4. See also {mosra}, {sraku}, {xutla}. spano gismu -san- x_1 reflects Spanish-speaking culture/nationality/language in aspect x_2. Metaphorical restriction to Spain by contrast with xispo (comparable to the distinction between glico and merko/sralo/brito/kadno); Spain (= {sangu'e}); Spanish dialects spoken in Spain, especially Castillian (= {sansanbau}). See also {xispo}, {ketco}, {mexno}, {gento}. spati gismu -spa- x_1 is a plant/herb/greenery of species/strain/cultivar x_2. Also (adjective:) x_1 is vegetable/vegetal/vegetative. See also {genja}, {grute}, {gurni}, {latna}, {rozgu}, {stagi}, {tricu}, {tsiju}, {tujli}, {xruba}, {xrula}, {pezli}, {srasu}. speni gismu -spe- x_1 is married to x_2; x_1 is a spouse of x_2 under law/custom/tradition/system/convention x_3. See also {prami}, {gletu}. spero experimental gismu x_1 pertains to Esperanto language/culture in aspect x_2 spisa gismu -spi- x_1 [object/substance] is a piece/portion/lump/chunk/particle of x_2 [substance]. See also {pagbu}. spita gismu x_1 is a hospital treating patient(s) x_2 for condition/injuries/disease/illness x_3. Hospice (a place where x_2 of spita is lenu {mrobi'o} = {mrospita}). See also {bilma}, {mikce}. spofu gismu -pof- -po'u- x_1 is broken/inoperable/broken down/non-utile/not usable for function x_2. Agentive break, cause to become inoperable (= {pofygau}, {pofyzu'e}); accidentally break, as a result of an event, non-agentive (= {pofyja'e}, {nutpo'uja'e}). See also {daspo}, {katna}, {porpi}, {se} {xrani}, {cikre}. spoja gismu -poj- -po'a- x_1 bursts/explodes/violently breaks up/decomposes/combusts into pieces/energy/fragments x_2. See also {cecla}, {jakne}, {jbama}. spuda gismu -spu- x_1 answers/replies to/responds to person/object/event/situation/stimulus x_2 with response x_3. x_3 also answer/reply. If x_2 is a person/object, it will usually require "tu'a" indicating that the reply/response is to that person/object doing something. "tu'a" may not be needed if the person/object itself is the stimulus, rather than something it is doing. See also {cusku}, {preti}, {nabmi}, {danfu}, {frati}, {cpedu}. sputu gismu -put- -pu'u- x_1 spits/expectorates x_2 [predominantly liquid] from x_3 to/onto x_4. Saliva/spit/sputum/spittle (= {molselpu'u}). See also {jetce}, {kafke}, {vamtu}. sraji gismu -raj- x_1 is vertical/upright/erect/plumb/oriented straight up and down in reference frame/gravity x_2. See also {sanli}, {pinta}. sraku gismu -rak- x_1 [abrasive/cutting/scratching object/implement] scratches/[carves]/erodes/cuts [into] x_2. (cf. {guska}, {katna}, {mosra}, {plixa}, {kakpa} (unlike kakpa, sraku does not imply material is removed), {spali}) sralo gismu x_1 reflects Australian culture/nationality/geography/dialect in aspect x_2. See also {glico}. srana gismu -ra'a- x_1 pertains to/is germane/relevant to/concerns/is related/associated with/is about x_2. Also: x_1 is a question of/treats of x_2; can be symmetric, although x_1 is conventionally more specific or constrained in scope than x_2. See also cmavo list {ra'a}, {ckini}, {ponse}, {steci}. srasu gismu -sas- x_1 is a blade/expanse of grass of species x_2. Lawn/meadow (= {sasfoi}). See also {spati}. srera gismu -sre- x_1 errs in doing/being/making mistake x_2 (event), an error under conditions x_3 by standard x_4. (cf. {drani}, which is non-agentive, {cfila}, {fliba}) srito gismu x_1 reflects Sanskrit language/Sanskritic/Vedic culture/nationality in aspect x_2. See also {xindo}, {xurdo}. sruma gismu -ru'a- x_1 assumes/supposes that x_2 (du'u) is true about subject x_3; [epistemology]. Words usable for epistemology typically have a du'u place. See also {smadi}, {birti}. sruri gismu -rur- -sru- x_1 encircles/encloses/is surrounding x_2 in direction(s)/dimension(s)/plane x_3. ({jinsru} =) x_1 is a ring/belt/band/girdle around/circling/ringing x_2 near total containment in some dimension(s). See also {karli}, {senta}, {snuji}, {vanbi}, se {nenri}, se {jbini}, {bartu}, {djine}. stace gismu -sac- x_1 is honest/open/truthfully revealing to/candid/frank with x_2 about matter/fact x_3. Also straight, straight-forward. See also {tcica}, {jetnu}, {jitfa}, {mipri}. stagi gismu x_1 is the edible x_2 portion of plant x_3; x_1 is a vegetable. Note that fruits and nuts are also vegetables; generally this word will be used for either the general category of edible plants, or for non-fruit vegetables (= {nalrutstagi}). See also {grute}, {kobli}, {narge}, {sluni}, {spati}, {sunga}, {tamca}. staku gismu -tak- x_1 is a quantity of/contains/is made of ceramic made by x_2, of composition x_3, in form/shape x_4. Made of baked clay or other non-metallic solid; x_3: composition including x_3, which need not be complete specification. See also {kliti}. stali gismu -sta- x_1 remains/stays at/abides/lasts with x_2. See also {vitno}, {zasni}, {ralte}, {stodi}, {xabju}, {stuzi}, {renvi}. stani gismu x_1 is a/the stalk/stem/trunk [body-part] of plant/species x_2; [metaphor: main support]. See also {tuple}, {mudri}. stapa gismu -tap- x_1 steps/treads on/in surface x_2 using limbs x_3. See also {bajra}, {plipe}, {cadzu}, {serti}. stasu gismu x_1 is a quantity of soup/stew/olla/olio [food] of ingredients including x_2. x_2 is in x_1, an ingredient/part/component of x_1. See also {sanmi}, {mixre}, {salta}, {sanso}. stati gismu x_1 has a talent/aptitude/innate skill for doing/being x_2. See also {jinzi}, {certu}, {rarna}, {larcu}, {kakne}. steba gismu -seb- x_1 feels frustration about x_2 (abstraction). See also {cinmo}. steci gismu -tec- -te'i- x_1 (ka) is specific/particular/specialized/[special]/a defining property of x_2 among x_3 (set). [x_2 are members/individuals of a subset of x_3; object whose association is specific/defining of a subset or individuals (= {tecra'a}, also cf. cmavo list {po'e}, [x_2 is also special to x_1]); also: especially/strongly/specifically associated]; (x_3 is completely specified set)]; See also {srana}, se {ponse}, {ckini}, {tcila}, {tutra}. stedu gismu -sed- x_1 is a/the head [body-part] of x_2; [metaphor: uppermost portion]. Skull (= {sedbo'u}). See also {drudi}, {mebri}, {xedja}, {besna}, {flira}, {mapku}. stela gismu -tel- x_1 is a lock/seal of/on/for sealing x_2 with/by locking mechanism x_3. See also {ckiku}. stero gismu -te'o- x_1 is x_2 steradian(s) [metric unit] in solid angle (default is 1) by standard x_3. See also {centi}, {decti}, {dekto}, {femti}, {gigdo}, {gocti}, {gotro}, {kilto}, {megdo}, {mikri}, {milti}, {nanvi}, {petso}, {picti}, {terto}, {xatsi}, {xecto}, {xexso}, {zepti}, {zetro}. stici gismu -sic- x_1 is to the west/western side of x_2 according to frame of reference x_3. See also {stuna}, {berti}, {snanu}, {farna}. stidi gismu -sid- -ti'i- x_1 (agent) suggests/proposes idea/action x_2 to audience x_3; x_1 (event) inspires x_2 in/among x_3. Event which inspires/suggests/is suggestive (= {faurti'i}, {sidyfau}). See also cmavo list {ti'i}, {tcica}, {xlura}. stika gismu -tik- x_1 (event) adjusts/regulates/changes x_2 (ka/ni) in amount/degree x_3. Non-resultative, causal change; agentive adjust (= {tikygau}, {tikyzu'e}). See also {cenba} which need not be causal, {galfi} which is causal and resultative, {binxo} which need not be causal but is resultative, {zasni}, {stodi}. stizu gismu -tiz- x_1 is a chair/stool/seat/bench, a piece or portion of a piece of furniture intended for sitting. See also {nilce}, {zutse}, {jubme}, {ckana}. stodi gismu -sto- x_1 is constant/invariant/unchanging in property x_2 (ka) in response to stimulus/conditions x_3. Also stable/consistent/steadfast/firm/steady. See also {cenba}, {stika}, {stali}, {vitno}, {manfo}, {zasni}, {tinsa}, {jdari}. stuna gismu -sun- x_1 is to the east/eastern side of x_2 according to frame of reference x_3. See also {stici}, {berti}, {snanu}, {farna}. stura gismu -tur- -su'a- x_1 is a structure/arrangement/organization of x_2 [set/system/complexity]. (x_2, if a set, is completely specified); See also {ganzu}, {morna}, {ciste}, {lujvo}, {greku}, {gerna}. stuzi gismu -tuz- -stu- x_1 is an inherent/inalienable site/place/position/situation/spot/location of x_2 (object/event). Generally used for normally stationary objects/events, to give their 'permanent' location. See also cmavo list {tu'i}, {jmive}, {diklo}, {zvati}, {tcini}, {xabju}, {jibni}, {judri}, {lamji}, {mokca}, {stali}. sucta gismu -suc- x_1 (si'o) is abstracted/generalized/idealized from x_2 [something concrete] by rules x_3. See also {fatci}, {xanri}. sudga gismu -sud- x_1 is dry of liquid x_2; (adjective:) x_1 is arid. See also {cilmo}, {litki}, {runta}. sufti gismu -sfu- x_1 is a/the hoof [body-part] of x_2. See also {xirma}. suksa gismu -suk- x_1 (event/state) is sudden/sharply changes at stage/point x_2 in process/property/function x_3. Also abrupt, discontinuous. See also {spaji}, {vitci}, {vlile}. sumji gismu -suj- x_1 is a mathematical sum/result/total of x_2 plus/increased by x_3. See also {jmina}, {jalge}, {mulno}, {pilji}, {su'i}. sumne gismu x_1 (experiencer) smells/scents (transitive verb) x_2; x_2 smells/has odor/scent to observer x_1. See also {nazbi}, {panci}, {cpina}, {ganse}, {zgana}. sumti gismu -sum- -su'i- x_1 is a/the argument of predicate/function x_2 filling place x_3 (kind/number). (x_1 and x_2 are text); See also {bridi}, {darlu}, {gismu}. sunga gismu -sug- x_1 is a quantity of garlic [bulb] of species/strain x_2. See also {stagi}. sunla gismu -sul- x_1 is a quantity of/made from/consists of wool [tight curly hair] from animal/species/source x_2. See also {kosta}, {kumte}, {lanme}, {kanba}, {bukpu}, {kerfa}. surla gismu -sur- x_1 relaxes/rests/is at ease in/by doing/being x_2 (activity). See also {dunku}, {tatpi}, {cando}, {vreta}. sutra gismu -sut- x_1 is fast/swift/quick/hastes/rapid at doing/being/bringing about x_2 (event/state). See also {masno}. tabno gismu -tab- x_1 is a quantity of/contains/is made of carbon/graphite/[diamond]/charcoal; x_1 is organic. See also {kolme}. tabra gismu x_1 is a horn/trumpet/trombone/bugle [brass-wind/lip-reed musical instrument]. See also {zgike}. tadji gismu x_1 [process] is a method/technique/approach/means for doing x_2 (event) under conditions x_3. Also practice/way/mode; style/manner/conduct (= {tratadji}); pattern (= {montadji}, {tadjymo'a}, or {platadji}, {tadjypla}). See also {ciste}, {pruce}, {zukte}, {pluta}, cmavo list {ta'i}. tadni gismu -tad- x_1 studies/is a student of x_2; x_1 is a scholar; (adjective:) x_1 is scholarly. See also {ckule}, {cilre}, {ctuca}. tagji gismu -tag- x_1 is snug/tight on x_2 in dimension/direction x_3 at locus x_4. See also {trati}, {jarki}, {kluza}, {rinju}. taksi experimental gismu x_1 is a taxi See also {aftobuso}. For denoting passengers, engine, towns and cities etc. used in combination with {karce}, {carce}, {marce}, {tcadu}. talsa gismu -tal- x_1 (person) challenges x_2 at/in property x_3. (cf. {jinga}, {damba}, {darlu}, {jivna}, {nandu} for a challenging event/situation) tamca gismu x_1 is a tomato [fruit/vegetable/plant] of species/strain x_2. See also {grute}, {stagi}. tamji gismu -taj- x_1 is a/the thumb/big toe [body-part] on limb x_2 of x_3; [metaphor based on relative shape]. Thumb (specifically the hand = {xantamji}), big toe (= {jmatamji}). See also {degji}, {tance}, {xance}, {jamfu}. tamne gismu x_1 is cousin to x_2 by bond/tie x_3; [non-immediate family member, default same generation]. Probably preferred for metaphorical siblings (over bruna). See also {dzena}, {famti}, {mensi}, {bruna}, {tunba}. tanbo gismu -ta'o- x_1 is a board/plank [3-dimensional long flat rectangle] of material x_2. See also {bliku}, {kubli}. tance gismu -tac- x_1 is a/the tongue [body-part] of x_2; (metaphor: similar to nazbi, tamji, degji). (adjective:) x_1 is lingual. See also {moklu}, {bangu}, {nazbi}, {tamji}, {degji}. tanjo gismu x_1 is the trigonometric tangent of angle/arctangent x_2. See also {sinso}. tanko gismu x_1 is a quantity of tobacco [leaf] of species/strain x_2. See also {sigja}, {marna}. tanru gismu -tau- x_1 is a binary metaphor formed with x_2 modifying x_3, giving meaning x_4 in usage/instance x_5. (x_2 and x_3 are both text or both si'o concept) See also {gismu}, {smuni}. tansi gismu -tas- x_1 is a pan/basin/tub/sink, a shallow container for contents x_2, of material/properties x_3. Also bowl. See also {baktu}, {palne}, {palta}, {patxu}, {kabri} for a bowl that is normally lifted for use, {botpi}. tanxe gismu -tax- -ta'e- x_1 is a box/carton/trunk/crate for contents x_2, and made of material x_3. See also {bakfu}, {botpi}, {cutne}, {dacru}. tapla gismu x_1 is a tile/cake [shape/form] of material x_2, shape x_3, thickness x_4. A tile is a 3-dimensional object, relatively uniform and significant in the 3rd dimension, but thin enough that its shape in the the other two dimensions is a significant feature; 'city block' is conceptually a tile; polygon (= {taplytai} or {kardytai} - shaped like an approximately-2-dimensional block, {lijyclupa} - a loop composed of lines). (cf. {bliku}, {kubli}, {matci}; {karda}, for which the 3rd dimension is insignificant, {bliku}, {kurfa}, {matci}, {plita}, {tarmi}) tarbi gismu x_1 is an embryo/zygote/fetus/fertilized egg with mother x_2, and father x_3. See also {gutra}, {mamta}, {patfu}, {sovda}, {rorci}, {tsiju}, {grute}. tarci gismu -tar- x_1 is a star/sun with stellar properties x_2. See also {solri}, {tsani}. tarla gismu x_1 is a quantity of/contains/is made of tar/asphalt from source x_2. See also {kolme}, {pesxu}, {snipa}. tarmi gismu -tam- -tai- x_1 [ideal] is the conceptual shape/form of object/abstraction/manifestation x_2 (object/abstract). Also pattern; x_1 is the mathematical or theoretical ideal form, while x_2 is an object/event manifesting that form; e.g. circular/circle-shaped (= {cukseltai}) vs. circle (={cuktai}, while {cukla} alone is ambiguous); model (= {ci'ersaptai}, {saptai}, {ci'ersmitai}, {smitai}). See alse {nejni}, te {marji} for physical shape, {tapla}, {bliku}, {kubli}, {kurfa}, {cukla}, {mapti}, {morna}, {sarlu}. tarti gismu -tra- x_1 behaves/conducts oneself as/in-manner x_2 (event/property) under conditions x_3. Also (adjective:) x_1 is behavioral. See also {cnano}, {frati}, {tcaci}, {cilce}, {jikca}, {marde}. taske gismu x_1 thirsts for x_2; x_1 needs/wants drink/fluid/lubrication x_2. See also {nitcu}, {djica}, {xagji}, {pinxe}. tasmi experimental gismu x_1 is the way or manner in which activity/event x_2 is done/happens Lojban has always been lacking a gismu for "x1 is the manner of event x2" or similar. Later, {tai} started to be used for it, and then, since a BAI needs a brivla (usually a gismu) to be based on, they invented tamsmi. So {tasmi} is a true brivla for {tai}, the BAI of {tasmi}. Cf. {tai}, {tamsmi} tasta experimental gismu x_1 is a taste of x_2 See {smaka}, {vrusi}, {kukte}, {krumami}, {sodna} tatpi gismu -ta'i- x_1 is tired/fatigued by effort/situation x_2 (event); x_1 needs/wants rest. See also {cikna}, {sipna}, {surla}. tatru gismu -tat- x_1 is a/the breast/mammary/teat [body-part] of x_2; [metaphor: projection providing liquid]. Nipple (= {tatyji'o}). See also {ladru}, {mabru}. tavla gismu -tav- -ta'a- x_1 talks/speaks to x_2 about subject x_3 in language x_4. Not limited to vocal speech, but this is implied by the x_4 without context of some other medium of conversation (use {cusku}, {casnu}, {skicu}, {ciksi} for weaker implication of vocal communication); converse/discuss/chat (= {simta'a}, {simsku}, {vricysimta'a} for a conversation not clearly delimited by subject). See also {bacru}, {cusku} for actual expression, {casnu}, {darlu}, {skicu}, {ciksi}, {bangu}. taxfu gismu -taf- -ta'u- x_1 is dress/a garment/clothing for wearing by x_2 (gender/species/body part) serving purpose x_3. Also: x_2 can wear/is wearing x_1; refers to something intended for use as a garment, not merely something that happens to be worn at some time (which need not be true for dasni). See also {creka}, {cutci}, {daski}, {dasni}, {gluta}, {kosta}, {mapku}, {palku}, {pastu}, {skaci}, {smoka}, {lunbe}. tcaci gismu -cac- x_1 is a custom/habit/[ritual/rut] of x_2 under conditions x_3. Also: x_1 is customary/usual/the practice. See also {fadni}, {kampu}, {lakne}, {jinzi}, {ckaji}, {cnano}, {tarti}, {ritli}, {javni}, {zekri}. tcadu gismu -tca- x_1 is a town/city of metropolitan area x_2, in political unit x_3, serving hinterland/region x_4. Also (adjective:) x_1 is urban. See also {jarbu}, {nurma}, {cecmu}. tcana gismu x_1 is a station/node of/in/on transport/communication/distribution system/network x_2. x_2 may be represented by massed vehicles of system. See also {dargu}, {litru}, {pluta}, {trene}, {ciste}, ve {mrilu}, {tivni}, {cradi}, ve {benji}, {fonxa}, {dikca}, {fatri}. tcati gismu x_1 is made of/contains/is a quantity of tea brewed from leaves x_2. See also {ckafi}. tcaxe experimental gismu x_1 (object) has charge x_2 (number) in units x_3 for interaction/of type x_4 and in/by/using convention x_5 Generic type of charge; individual charges tend to be scalars. For electromagnetism, the meaning of a "positive charge" is either the signum of the charge of an electron for electricity or the signum of the charge of a south magnet for magnetism. Includes mass (gravitation charge ({gavytcaxe}) if it is being treated as such; x2 default: {ma'u}), electric charge ({dicmytcaxe}), (strong) isospin, weak isospin, color charge (Quantum Chromodynamics; {tsabytcaxe}), intrinsic spin/Dirac-Pauli charge, most quantum numbers (lepton number, baryon number), etc. See also: {majga}, {dikca}, {eldicka'u}, {kuardicka'u}, {paulcna}, {plankexu}, {grake}. tcena gismu -ten- x_1 stretches/extends to range x_2 [interval/extent] in dimension x_3 from relaxed range x_4. See also {kuspe}, {pruni}, {preja}, {ranji}, {trati}. tcese experimental gismu x_1 (event) is lightlike-separated/signallike-separated/coincident from x_2 (event) under signal means/in universe/by information channel (parametrization) x_3 See also: {temse}, {calse}. tcica gismu -tic- x_1 (event/experience) misleads/deceives/dupes/fools/cheats/tricks x_2 into x_3 (event/state). Agentive deception (= {ticygau}, {ticyzu'e}); x_3 could be an action or a belief on the part of x_2; harmful intent or result is not implied (= {malticyzu'e} for such harmful intent); self deception (= {sezytcica}); deceive/trick into misguided action (= {ticyxlu}); misguided belief (= {tickri}); fib/lie/tell an untruth/lie/fib (= {ticysku}, {jifsku}), white lie (= {zanticysku}). See also {stace}, {xlura}, {stidi}, {kajde}. tcidu gismu -tid- x_1 [agent] reads x_2 [text] from surface/document/reading material x_3; x_1 is a reader. See also {ciska}, {cukta}, {karni}. tcika gismu x_1 [hours, minutes, seconds] is the time/hour of state/event x_2 on day x_3 at location x_4. Also o'clock, time-of-day. (time units in x_1 are specified as numbers separated by pi'e or are unit values massified with joi); See also cmavo list {ti'u}, {cacra}, {cerni}, {detri}, {donri}, {djedi}, {junla}, {nicte}, {mentu}, {snidu}, {temci}, {vanci}, {dirba}, {mokca}. tcila gismu -til- x_1 is a detail/feature/particular of x_2. See also {diklo}, {steci}. tcima gismu -tim- -ti'a- x_1 is weather at place/region x_2; (adjective:) x_1 is meteorological. Climate (= {citsyti'a}, {timymo'a}). See also {brife}, {bumru}, {carvi}, {dilnu}, {bratu}. tcini gismu x_1 [state/property] is a situation/condition/state/position/are conditions/circumstances of x_2. Characteristics or environment of an object/event/process stage or state that are typically/potentially only temporary. See also {stuzi}, {zvati}, {vanbi}, ve {pruce}, {ckaji}, {zasni}. tcita gismu x_1 is a label/tag of x_2 showing information x_3. See also {sinxa}, {cmene}, {judri}. temci gismu -tem- -tei- x_1 is the time-duration/interval/period/[elapsed time] from time/event x_2 to time/event x_3. Also age/elapsed time (= {niltei}). See also {cacra}, {cedra}, {citsi}, {ranji}, {tcika}, {junla}, {renvi}. temse experimental gismu x_1 (event) is timelike-separated from x_2 (event) under signal means/in universe/by information channel (parametrization) x_3 Includes lightlike-separation. For events in the pastward light-cone (with the apex at ({mu'e}) x2), use {prutemse}; for futureward light-cone events, use {bavytemse}. See also: {calse}, {tcese} tende experimental gismu x_1 (entity) tends, has tendency to x_2 (property of x_1) See {dikni}, {lakne}. Proposed rafsi: -te'e- tenfa gismu -tef- x_1 is the exponential result of base x_2 to power/exponent x_3. See also {dugri}, {te'a} tengu gismu -teg- -te'u- x_1 (property-ka) is a texture of x_2. See also {rufsu}, {xutla}. terdi gismu -ted- x_1 is the Earth/the home planet of race x_2; (adjective:) x_1 is terrestrial/earthbound. (cf. {lunra}, {plini}, {solri}, {kensa}, {tsani}; {dertu} for ground, dirt, except when used to express physical relative frame of reference E.g. on the ground, the ground beneath us. {tsani}) terpa gismu -tep- -te'a- x_1 fears x_2; x_1 is afraid/scared/frightened by/fearful of x_2 (event/tu'a object). Also: x_1 feels terror about x_2; x_2 is fearsome/fearful/frightening/scary to x_1 (= {selte'a} to reorder places). See also {snura}, {xalni}, {xanka}, {virnu}. terto gismu -tet- x_1 is a trillion [10^12] of x_2 in dimension/aspect x_3 (default is units). Cf. {grake}, {mitre}, {snidu}, {stero}, {delno}, {molro}, {kelvo}, {xampo}, {gradu}, {litce}, {merli}, {centi}, {decti}, {dekto}, {femti}, {gigdo}, {gocti}, {gotro}, {kilto}, {megdo}, {mikri}, {milti}, {nanvi}, {petso}, {picti}, {xatsi}, {xecto}, {xexso}, {zepti}, {zetro}. tifri experimental gismu x_1 is the audience/enjoying party of work/performance/program/transmission/experience x_2 (concrete or abstract); x_1 watches/listens/reads/experiences x_2 All connotations about the judgment of the experience by x_1 are neutral in this definition (despite the use of the "enjoy"). This word references a generalizing concept of x_1 being an audience to some work or experience, such as magic acts (even if x1 participates somewhat), theatrical plays, ovations (radio, storytelling, etc.), television programs, books, discussions or media productions on the Internet, etc. The core concept is audiencehood, regardless of the work being enjoyed/experienced and its form. There are no connotations about how x_2 is perceived by x_1 (that is: which senses are used), nor how x_2 is transmitted nor who or what allows x1 to experience it (that is: whether there is an agentive performer or just a piece of hardware that displays x_2), nor of the nature of x_2; the term is completely generic and general. See also {tigni}, {jarco}, {lifri}, {skina}, {kinzga}, {tirna}, {zgana}, {cradi}, {tivni} tigni gismu -tig- x_1 performs x_2 [performance] for/before audience x_3. See also {jarco}. tigra experimental gismu x_1 is a tiger (Panthera tigris) of subspecies/breed x_2 More specific than {tirxu}. See {bramlatu} tikpa gismu -tip- x_1 kicks [hits with x_1's foot/feet x_4] x_2 in/at locus x_3, using x_1's foot/feet x_4. See also {tunta}, {darxi}. tilju gismu -tij- x_1 is heavy/weighty in mass/weight by standard x_2. (cf. {linto}; {carmi}, se {junri} for metaphor, {bunda}, {junta}) tinbe gismu -tib- x_1 obeys/follows the command/rule x_2 made by x_3; (adjective:) x_1 is obedient. See also {minde}, {lacri}, {javni}, {flalu}, {zekri}. tinci gismu x_1 is a quantity of/contains/is made of tin (Sn); [metaphor: cheap or base metal]. See also {gunma}, {lante}, {boxfo}, {cnisa}, {jinme}. tinsa gismu x_1 is stiff/rigid/inflexible/resistant in direction x_2 against force x_3 under conditions x_4. Also sometimes: firm, hard; not limited to physical forces; e.g. mental rigidity. See also {bapli}, {jdari}, {nandu}, {torni}, {trati}, {xarnu}, {danre}, {stodi}. tirna gismu -tin- x_1 hears x_2 against background/noise x_3; x_2 is audible; (adjective:) x_1 is aural. See also {kerlo}, {sance}, {smaji}, {savru}, {voksa}, {ganse}, {zgana}. tirse gismu -tir- x_1 is a quantity of/contains/is made of iron (Fe); [metaphor: strong, durable, tarnishing]. Also (adjective:) x_1 is ferric/ferrous. See also {jinme}, {gasta}, {molki}. tirxu gismu x_1 is a tiger/leopard/jaguar/[tigress] of species/breed x_2 with coat markings x_3. Due to the unusual grouping of concepts in this definition, {tigra} is favored for "tiger". /A great cat noted/recognized by its markings, metaphorically: stripes, tiger markings. See also {mlatu}. tisna gismu -tis- x_1 (object) fills/becomes stuffed [up]/inflates/blows up with material x_2; x_2 pours into x_1. Implies some relative degree of fullness will result; agentive filling (= {tisyse'a}, {tisygau}, {tisyzu'e}); inflate/become inflated/blow up (= {gacytisna}, agentive {gacyse'a}); pour into (= {liktisna}, agentive {likse'a}). See also {culno}, {kunti}, {rinci}, {setca}. titla gismu -tit- x_1 is sweet/sugary/saccharine to observer x_2. See also {sakta}, {slari}, {kurki}. tivni gismu -tiv- x_1 broadcasts/televises programming x_2 via medium/channel x_3 to television receiver x_4. Also x_1 is a broadcaster; x_2 programming (mass), program/show (ind.). See also {cradi}, {skina}, {vidni}, {benji}, {tcana}. tixnu gismu -tix- -ti'u- x_1 is a daughter of mother/father/parents x_2; [not necessarily biological]. See also {bersa}, {panzi}. toknu gismu -tok- x_1 is an oven [enclosure that heats its contents] for baking/heating/drying x_2. See also {nanba}. toldi gismu -tod- x_1 is a butterfly/moth of species/breed x_2. See also {cinki}. tonga gismu -tog- -to'a- x_1 is a tone/note of frequency/pitch x_2 from source x_3. See also {rilti}, {zgike}, {janbe}, {siclu}. tordu gismu -tor- -to'u- x_1 is short in dimension/direction x_2 (default longest dimension) by measurement standard x_3. See also {cmalu}, {jarki}, {caxno}, {cinla}, {clani}. torni gismu -ton- -to'i- x_1 twists under load/force/torsion x_2. See also {tinsa}, {trati}. torso experimental gismu x_1 is the torso (part of body excluding head and limbs) of x_2 See {cutne}, {betfu}, {xadni}, {stani} traji gismu -rai- x_1 is superlative in property x_2 (ka), the x_3 extreme (ka; default ka zmadu) among set/range x_4. Also: x_1 is x_3-est/utmost in x_2 among x_4; x_1 is the x_3 end of x_4; x_1 is extreme; x_1 is simply x_3. (cf. cmavo list {rai}, {jimte}, {milxe}, {mutce}, note contrast with milxe and mutce rather than with mleca and zmadu, which are values for x_3, {banli}, {curve}, {fanmo}, {krasi}, {manfo}, {prane}) trano gismu x_1 is a quantity of/contains/is made of nitrogen/ammonia/nitrates. (adjective:) x_1 is nitric/nitrous. See also {vacri}. trati gismu x_1 is taut/tense/strained tight in direction x_2. See also {tinsa}, {torni}, {tagji}, {tcena}, {kluza}. trene gismu -ren- -re'e- x_1 is a train [vehicle] of cars/units x_2 (mass) for rails/system/railroad x_3, propelled by x_4. A railed vehicle or train of vehicles; also subway ({tu'unre'e}), metro, trolley, tramway (= {lajre'e}), roller coaster; monorail (= {dadre'e}); cable car, sky car, ski lift (= {cildadre'e}). See also {tcana}. tricu gismu -ric- x_1 is a tree of species/cultivar x_2. See also {cindu}, {ckunu}, {pezli}, {mudri}, {spati}. trina gismu -tri- x_1 attracts/appeals to/lures x_2 (person/event) with property/quality x_3 (ka). Also: x_1 is alluring to x_2. See also {djica}, {nelci}, {rigni}, {xlura}, {maksi}. trixe gismu -rix- -ti'e- x_1 is posterior/behind/back/in the rear of x_2 which faces/in-frame-of-reference x_3. Also: x_3 is the standard of orientation for x_2; spine (= {rixybo'u}, {rixybo'ukamju}). See also {crane}, {rebla}, {mlana}, {pritu}, {zunle}. troci gismu -toc- -toi- x_1 tries/attempts/makes an effort to do/attain x_2 (event/state/property) by actions/method x_3. Also experiments at. See also {fliba}, {snada}, {cipra}. tsaba experimental gismu x1 pertains/is related to/reflects (the) strong nuclear force [fundamental physical interaction]/chromodynamic interaction in manner/with properties/in state/with realization x2, coupling to x3 in manner/with strength x4 See also: {jikfi}, {vubla}, {dicma}, {grava}, {xigzo}. tsali gismu -tsa- x_1 is strong/powerful/[tough] in property/quality x_2 (ka) by standard x_3. See also {ralci}, {ruble}, {carmi}, {vlipa}. tsani gismu -tan- x_1 is an expanse of sky/the heavens at place x_2; [celestial]. See also {gapru}, {kensa}, {tarci}, {terdi}. tsapi gismu x_1 is a seasoning/condiment/spice causing flavor/effect x_2 (event/property). Also: x_1 flavors x_2 (tu'a). See also {vrusi}. tsiju gismu -tsi- x_1(s) is/are (a) seed(s)/spore(s) [body-part] of organism x_2 for producing offspring x_3. Also germ cell; implies actual potential for self-development; seeds generally contain embryo and food, and hence would include a fertilized egg. See also {tarbi}, {dembi}, {grute}, {jbari}, {sombo}, {spati}, {sovda}. tsina gismu -sin- x_1 is a stage/platform/dais/[scaffold] at/in x_2 supporting x_3, made of material x_4. (x_3 object/event); See also {greku}, {jubme}. tsuku experimental gismu x_1 arrives at x_2 via route x_3 See {cliva}, {klama}, {tolyli'a}. Synonymous with {darca}. tubnu gismu -tu'u- x_1 is a length of tubing/pipe/hollow cylinder [shape/form] of material x_2, hollow of material x_3. Also tube, sleeve, leg, hose, (adjective:) tubular. See also {kevna}, {canlu}. tubra experimental gismu x_1 is a limb/appendage/extremity of body/entity x_2 used for purpose x_3 Any extremity used for manipulation, support, mobility, flight/swimming, etc. Usually, it can move and be controlled actively by x2 (if conscious). The term may or may not be applicable to heads, tails, mandibles, antennae, or plant parts, but occasionally may. It is more general than {tuple} or {birka}. It is also useful for talking about limbs which are rather anatomically different from human limbs: fish fins or tails, spider legs, snail feet (possibly), elephant trunks, etc. In winged insects/entities (including machinary), it can refer to wings as well as legs (especially in birds as opposed to insects, but even then as well); care must be taken if one wishes to be more clear. "Tentacle": {tu'urtubra}. See also {torso}, {xadji}. tugni gismu -tug- -tu'i- x_1 [person] agrees with person(s)/position/side x_2 that x_3 (du'u) is true about matter x_4. See also {sarxe}, {mapti}, {darlu}, {natfe}, {panpi}, {sarji}. tujli gismu -tuj- x_1 is a tulip (defined by flower shape) of species/strain x_2. See also {spati}. tumla gismu -tum- -tu'a- x_1 is a parcel/expanse of land at location x_2; x_1 is terrain. (cf. {vacri}, {xamsi}; {tutra}, which need not be land, {gugde}, {xamsi}) tunba gismu -tub- x_1 is a sibling of x_2 by bond/tie/standard/parent(s) x_3. See also {bruna}, {mensi}, {tamne}. tunka gismu -tuk- x_1 is made of/contains/is a quantity of copper (Cu); [metaphor: reddish, electrical conductor]. See also {jinme}, {lastu}, {ransu}. tunlo gismu -tul- -tu'o- x_1 gulps/swallows. x_1 swallows down food/drink. x_2 (= {tulpinxe}, {tulcti}, {ctitu'o} (the latter two are more general - for food or beverage); swallow/engulf (= {galxycti}, {galxynerbi'o}, {galxygre}. See also {citka}, {pinxe}, {galxe}. tunta gismu -tun- x_1 (object, usually pointed) pokes/jabs/stabs/prods x_2 (experiencer). Agentive (= {tungau}, {tunzu'e}). See also {balre}, {dakfu}, {darxi}, {fanza}, {jicla}, {katna}, {tikpa}. tuple gismu -tup- -tu'e- x_1 is a/the leg [body-part] of x_2; [metaphor: supporting branch]. See also {stani}, {zbepi}, {jamfu}, {jimca}, {sanli}. turko experimental gismu x_1 reflects Turkish culture/nationality/language in aspect x_2 turni gismu -tru- x_1 governs/rules/is ruler/governor/sovereign/reigns over people/territory/domain/subjects x_2. x_2 need not be complete specification of set of governed; reign/rule (= {noltru}); king/queen/sovereign (= {nolraitru}); pure democracy (= {roltrusi'o}), representative democracy (= {rolka'itrusi'o}), viceroy (= {ka'itru}), pure communism (= {kaurpo'esi'o}), board of directors/trustees, steering committee (= {trukamni}); government (= {trugunma}, {trugri} (emphasizing the components), {truci'e} (emphasizing the organization)). See also {catni}, {minde}, {tutra}, {jecta}, {gugde}, {ponse}, {jitro}. tutci gismu -tci- x_1 is a tool/utensil/resource/instrument/implement used for doing x_2; [form determines function]. (cf. {cabra}, {minji}, se {pilno}, {zukte}, {sazri}, basic tool types: {salpo}, {pulni}, {cfine}, {klupe}, {jendu}, {xislu}, {vraga}; utensils: {forca}, {smuci}, {dakfu}; specifics: {balre}, {mruli}, {cinza}, {garna}, {pijne}, {pambe}, {canpa}, {pilno}, {vraga}) tutle experimental gismu x_1 is/reflects/pertains to race/societal(/social) classification x_2 culture/status in aspect x_3, of subtype/particular subcategory/group/tribe x_4, by definition/standard/societal classification system x_5 See also: {kapli}, {maska}, {rindo}, {xispo}. tutra gismu -tut- x_1 is territory/domain/space of/belonging to/controlled by x_2. See also {catni}, {turni}, {jecta}, {gugde}, {ponse}, {steci}, {tumla}. vacri gismu -var- x_1 is a quantity of air/normally-gaseous atmosphere of planet x_2, of composition including x_3. See also {gapci}, {kijno}, {trano}, {tumla}, {vasxu}, {xamsi}. vajni gismu -vaj- -vai- x_1 (object/event) is important/significant to x_2 (person/event) in aspect/for reason x_3 (nu/ka). Also: x_1 matters to x_2 in aspect/respect x_3. See also {banli}, {ralju}, {vamji}, {dirba}, {kargu}, {pajni}. valsi gismu -val- -vla- x_1 is a word meaning/causing x_2 in language x_3; (adjective: x_1 is lexical/verbal). See also {slaka}, {bangu}, {cmavo}, {cmene}, {gismu}, {jufra}, {rafsi}, {smuni}. vamji gismu -vam- -va'i- x_1 (ni) is the equivalent value/worth of x_2 [item(s) of value] to x_3 for use/appreciation x_4. Also: x_2 is worth x_1 to x_3; (for x_2 person:) x_2 merits (one sense), (adjective:) x_2 is worthy (= selva'i for reordered places); merit reward (= {nemselva'i}); receive merited reward (= {vamselne'u}); x_2 may be a specific object, a commodity (mass), an event, or a property; pedantically, for objects/commodities, this is sumti-raising from ownership of the object/commodity (= {posyva'i}, {posyselva'i} for unambiguous semantics). (cf. {jdima}, {jerna}, {vecnu}, {dirba}, {janta}, {kargu}, {pleji}; see note at jdima on cost/price/value distinction, {vajni}) vamtu gismu -vat- x_1 vomits/regurgitates x_2; x_1 throws x_2 up; [violent] digestive expulsion. (x_2 is non-gaseous); See also {rigni}, {jetce}, {kafke}, {sputu}. vanbi gismu -vab- x_1 (ind./mass) is part of an environment/surroundings/context/ambience of x_2. (adjective:) x_1 is ambient. See also cmavo list {va'o}, {sruri}, {jibni}, {jbini}, {ferti}, {tcini}. vanci gismu -vac- x_1 is an evening [from end-of-work until sleep typical for locale] of day x_2 at location x_3. This evening (= {cabvanci}); tomorrow evening (= {bavlamvanci}); yesterday evening (= {prulamvanci}). See also {cerni}, {murse}, {tcika}. vanju gismu -van- x_1 is made of/contains/is a quantity of wine from fruit/grapes x_2. See also {barja}, {birje}, {xalka}, {jikru}, {fusra}. vasru gismu -vas- -vau- x_1 contains/holds/encloses/includes contents x_2 within; x_1 is a vessel containing x_2. [also accommodates, container; containment need not be total; x_2 is Contained. in x_1 (= selvau for reordered places)]; See also {bartu}, {jbini}, {nenri}, {zvati}, {cpana}, {botpi}, {lanka}. vasxu gismu -vax- -va'u- x_1 breathes/respires x_2 [gas]. (though used to make the Lojban word, clue word vascular is erroneous, actually pertaining to the circulatory system that carries the respired oxygen to the tissues); See also {fepri}, {kijno}, {vacri}. vecnu gismu -ven- -ve'u- x_1 [seller] sells/vends x_2 [goods/service/commodity] to buyer x_3 for amount/cost/expense x_4. x_1 is a salesperson/salesman/vendor; x_3 buys x_2 from x_1 (= {terve'u} for reordered terms); x_4 is the price of x_2 to x_3 (= {velve'u} for reordered terms); for sale (= {fitselve'u}, {selvenfriti}); x_2 may be a specific object, a commodity (mass), an event, or a property; pedantically, for objects/commodities, this is sumti-raising from ownership of the object/commodity (= {posyve'u}, {posyselve'u} for unambiguous semantics). (cf. {canja}, {dunda}, {janta}, {pleji}, {jerna}, {kargu}, {prali}, {zarci}, {vamji}, {jdima}; see note at {jdima} on cost/price/value distinction, {fepni}, {friti}, {jerna}, {rupnu}) vedli experimental gismu x_1 remembers experience x_2 (li'i) x_1 lifri x_2 is implied. See also {morji}, {lifri}. Proposed short rafsi -ve'i-. venfu gismu -vef- x_1 takes revenge on/retaliates against x_2 (person) for wrong x_3 (nu) with vengeance x_4 (nu). Also avenge; (adjective:) x_1 is vengeful. See also {sfasa}, {cnemu}. vensa gismu -ves- x_1 is spring/springtime [warming season] of year x_2 at location x_3; (adjective:) x_1 is vernal. See also {citsi}, {crisa}, {critu}, {dunra}. vente experimental gismu x_1 is the ventral part of body x_2 Opposite of dorsum. Not necessarily should be the frontal part of the body. See also {bekpi}, {betfu}, {flira} vepre experimental gismu x_1 is a non-binary-gendered/intersex/asexual/nongendered/transgendered and immature/young person of age x_2 immature by standard x_3 Word dispreferred in metaphor/example as sexist (use instead {verba}). See also: {nixli}, {nanla}, {verba}, {bersa}, {tixnu}, {nunmu}. verba gismu -ver- -ve'a- x_1 is a child/kid/juvenile [a young person] of age x_2, immature by standard x_3. Not necessarily human. See also {cifnu}, {makcu}, {citno}, {panzi}, {nanla}, {nixli}, se {rirni}, {bersa}. vibna gismu -vib- x_1 is a/the vagina [body-part] of x_2. See also {cinse}, {gletu}, {pinji}, {plibu}, {vlagi}, {mabla}. vidni gismu x_1 is a video monitor/CRT/screen [machine] serving function x_2. See also {skina}, ve {tivni}. vidru gismu -vir- x_1 is a virus of species/breed/defining property x_2 capable of infecting [at] x_3. See also {jurme}. vifne gismu -vif- (adjective:) x_1 is fresh/unspoiled. See also {fusra}. vikmi gismu -vim- -vi'i- x_1 [body] excretes waste x_2 from source x_3 via means/route x_4. See also {cigla}, {kalci}, {pinca}, {xasne}. viknu gismu -vik- x_1 is thick/viscous under conditions x_2. See also {denmi}, {snipa}. vimcu gismu -vic- -vi'u- x_1 removes/subtracts/deducts/takes away x_2 from x_3 with/leaving result/remnant/remainder x_4. Also appropriates, confiscates; alienation is inherent. See also {lebna}, {muvdu}, {cpacu}, {canci}, {cliva}, {jdika}. vindu gismu -vid- x_1 is poisonous/venomous/toxic/a toxin to x_2. See also {since}. vinji gismu -vij- x_1 is an airplane/aircraft [flying vehicle] for carrying passengers/cargo x_2, propelled by x_3. See also {vofli}, {sabnu}. vinta experimental gismu x_1 (user/consumer) is an addict of/is addicted to substance/entity/experience x_2 by standard x_3 Implies physiological need; the nature of x2 does not matter, only the response of x1. Quite arguably, anything other than an experience filling in x2 is sumti-raising. Is not necessarily bad; for example, one can be addicted to life, or to the consumption and processing of sugar. vipsi gismu -vip- x_1 is a deputy/vice/subordinate in aspect [or organization principle] x_2 (ka) to principal x_3. Also assistant, adjutant. See also {krati}, {sidju}. virnu gismu -vri- x_1 is brave/valiant/courageous in activity x_2 (event) by standard x_3. See also {terpa}, {darsi}. viska gismu -vis- -vi'a- x_1 sees/views/perceives visually x_2 under conditions x_3. Also (adjective:) x_1 is visual; x_3 can include ambient lighting, background, etc. which may affect what is perceived; note that English "see" often means "look" or a more generic "observe", or even "understand, know". See also {catlu}, {jvinu}, {kanla}, {minra}, {simlu}, {djuno}, {jimpe}, {zgana}, {ganse}. vitci gismu -vit- x_1 is irregular/occasional/intermittent in property/action/aspect x_2. See also {ranji}, {rufsu}, {suksa}. vitke gismu -vi'e- x_1 is a guest/visitor of x_2 at place/event x_3; x_1 visits x_2/x_3. See also {friti}, {klama}, {zasni}, {xabju}, {zvati}. vitno gismu -vi'o- x_1 is permanent/lasting/[eternal] in property x_2 (ka) by standard x_3 [time-span/expectant one]. Also everlasting. See also {stodi}, {cimni}, {zasni}, {manfo}, {stali}. vlagi gismu -lag- x_1 is a/the vulva [body-part] of x_2. See also {cinse}, {gletu}, {pinji}, {plibu}, {vibna}, {mabla}. vlile gismu -vil- x_1 is an event/state/act of violence. See also {suksa}, {jursa}. vlina gismu x_1 is a logical alternation/disjunction, stating that x_2 (du'u) and/or x_3 (du'u) is/are true. See also {kanxe}, cmavo list {a}, {ja}, {gi'a}, {gu'a}. vlipa gismu -vli- x_1 has the power to bring about x_2 under conditions x_3; x_1 is powerful in aspect x_2 under x_3. Also potent, has control/mastery. See also {tsali}, {jitro}, {ruble}. vofli gismu -vol- -voi- x_1 flies [in air/atmosphere] using lifting/propulsion means x_2. See also {cipni}, {klama}, {vinji}. voksa gismu -vok- -vo'a- x_1 is a voice/speech sound of individual x_2. See also {sance}, {tirna}, {bacru}. volve experimental gismu x_1 returns to x_2 from x_3; x_1 moves/gives back to x_2 from x_3. x1 goes back/reverts/retreats; (x2 may be a location or a person or an event/situation; the latter may also be expressed with {krefu} or {rapli} and a causative like {rinka}/{rikygau}). See also {benji}, {krefu}, {rapli}, {rinka}. For 'return something to something' use {volvygau} or {xruti}. vorme gismu -vor- -vro- x_1 is a doorway/gateway/access way between x_2 and x_3 of structure x_4. Note: emphasis on route nature; solid door (= {vrogai}/{vrobi'u}/{vrozu'itci}). See also {canko}, {ganlo}, {kalri}, {murta}, {pagre}, {bitmu}, {kuspe}. vraga gismu -vra- x_1 is a lever [tool] [of apparatus] for doing x_2 [function/action], with fulcrum x_3 and arm x_4. See also {tutci}, {pulni}. vreji gismu -rej- -vei- x_1 is a record of x_2 (data/facts/du'u) about x_3 (object/event) preserved in medium x_4. See also {sorcu}, {datni}, {papri}. vreta gismu -vre- x_1 lies/rests/reclines/reposes on x_2; x_1 is reclining/recumbent/lying on x_2. See also {cpana}, {surla}, {zutse}, {ckana}, {lazni}. vrici gismu x_1 (set/mass/ind.) is miscellaneous/various/assorted in property x_2 (ka). See also {manfo}, {klesi}, {girzu}, {frica}, {simsa}, {panra}. vrude gismu -vud- -vu'e- x_1 is virtuous/saintly/[fine/moral/nice/holy/morally good] by standard x_2. Holy/saintly (= {cesyvu'e}). Virtue the attribute is "ka vrude". See also {palci}, {xamgu}, {marde}, {zabna}. vrusi gismu -vus- -vu'i- x_1 (ka) is a taste/flavor of/emitted by x_2; x_2 tastes of/like x_1. Also: x_2 tastes of seasoning x_1, x_1 is a seasoned flavor of x_2 (= {tsapyvu'i}); vrusi may overlap the senses of taste and smell, since the latter is a significant component of taste. See also {kukte}, {tsapi}, {cpina}, {panci}. vubla experimental gismu x1 pertains/is related to/reflects (the) weak nuclear force [fundamental interaction] in manner/with properties/in state/with realization x2, coupling to x3 in manner/with strength x4 Also: possibly radioactive/nuclear/atomic decay/emission/fission. Proposed short rafsi: -vul-. See also: {jikfi}, {tsaba}, {dicma}, {grava}, {xigzo} vujnu experimental gismu x_1 is the subtraction-difference of x_2 and x_3 (and x_4 etc.); x_1 = x_2 - x_3 [ - x_4 etc.] Near-synonymous to {selsumji}, but better conveys the concept of "subtraction", as opposed to merely "addend", as well as being more convenient for lujvo. See {vu'u}, {sumji}, {pilji}, {dilcu}, {frinu}. Proposed rafsi: -vuj-, -vu'u- vukna experimental gismu x_1 confuses x_2 with x_3; x_1 misidentifies x_2 as x_3 Syn. {dubji'isre}. See {cfipu}, {srera}, {ji'isre}, {tolmo'i} vukro gismu -vur- -vu'o- x_1 reflects Ukrainian language/culture/nationality in aspect x_2. See also {slovo}, {softo}. xabju gismu -xa'u- x_1 dwells/lives/resides/abides at/inhabits/is a resident of location/habitat/nest/home/abode x_2. See also {ginka}, {zdani}, {zvati}, {stuzi}, {jmive}, {stali}, {vitke}. xadba gismu -xab- x_1 is exactly/approximately half/semi-/demi-/hemi- of x_2 by standard x_3. See also {mulno}, {pagbu}. xadji experimental gismu x_1 is a body part of x_2 that is meant to dextrously manipulate or grasp objects (along with other potential purposes) Includes: hands (prehensile), fingers, pincers, mandables, prehensile tails, tentacles and/or the suckers thereupon, beaks or snouts, etc. xadni gismu -xad- x_1 is a/the body/corpus/corpse of x_2; (adjective:) x_1 is corporal/corporeal. See also {menli}, {pruxi}, {sluji}, {mulno}, {cutne}. xagji gismu x_1 hungers for x_2; x_1 needs/wants food/fuel x_2. See also {cidja}, {citka}, {djica}, {nitcu}, {taske}. xagri gismu x_1 is a oboe/clarinet/saxophone [reed musical instrument] with reed x_2. See also {zgike}. xajmi gismu -xam- x_1 is funny/comical to x_2 in property/aspect x_3 (nu/ka); x_3 is what is funny about x_1 to x_2. Also: x_1 is a comedian (= {xampre}, {xamseljibri} for a professional comedian). (x_1 can be a person/object or an abstraction; be careful about possible sumti-raising); See also {bebna}, {cisma}, {cmila}, {fenki}, {zdile}. xaksu gismu -xak- x_1 (event) uses up/depletes/consumes/[wastes] x_2 [resource]. Waste (= {fesxaksu}, {dusxaksu}). See also {citka}, {festi}, {daspo}, {livla}, {pinxe}. xalbo gismu x_1 uses levity/is non-serious/frivolous about x_2 (abstraction). See also {junri}, {linto}. xalka gismu -xal- x_1 is a quantity of/contains/is made of alcohol of type x_2 from source/process x_3. See also {birje}, {jikru}, {vanju}. xalni gismu x_1 (person) is panicked by crisis x_2 (event/state). See also {ckape}, {snura}, {terpa}, {xanka}. xamgu gismu -xag- -xau- x_1 (object/event) is good/beneficial/nice/[acceptable] for x_2 by standard x_3. Acceptable (= {mlixau}, {norxau}, {xaurselcru}). See also {melbi}, {xlali}, {vrude}, {zabna}. xampo gismu -xap- -xa'o- x_1 is x_2 ampere(s) [metric unit] in current (default is 1) by standard x_3. See also {dikca}, {flecu}, {centi}, {decti}, {dekto}, {femti}, {gigdo}, {gocti}, {gotro}, {kilto}, {megdo}, {mikri}, {milti}, {nanvi}, {petso}, {picti}, {terto}, {xatsi}, {xecto}, {xexso}, {zepti}, {zetro}. xamsi gismu -xas- x_1 is a sea/ocean/gulf/[atmosphere] of planet x_2, of fluid x_3; (adjective:) x_1 is marine. Also atmosphere (= {varxamsi}, {varsenta}). See also {daplu}, {djacu}, {lalxu}, {rirxe}, {tumla}, {vacri}, {zbani}, {ctaru}. xance gismu -xan- -xa'e- x_1 is a/the hand [body-part] of x_2; [metaphor: manipulating tool, waldo]. (adjective:) x_1 is manual. See also {birka}, {degji}, {jitro}, {xlura}, {jamfu}, {tamji}. xango experimental gismu x_1 reflects Korean culture/nationality/language in aspect x_2 xanka gismu x_1 is nervous/anxious about x_2 (abstraction) under conditions x_3. See also {xalni}, {terpa}, {raktu}. xanri gismu -xar- x_1 [concept] exists in the imagination of/is imagined by/is imaginary to x_2. Also (adjective:) x_1 is mental (one sense), x_1 is unreal (one sense); in spite of the synonym, note that x_1 is imaginary does not imply that it doesn't exist in the real world; the definition is crafted so that one can talk about imaginary things without claiming that they thereby don't exist. See also {fatci}, {senva}, {sucta}, {zasti}, {cfika}, {dacti}, {menli}, {sidbo}. xansa experimental gismu x_1 is chiral with handedness x_2 according to definition/by standard x_3 in space/under constraints/under conditions x_4 For the (oppositely-)chiral partner/twin/enantiomorph, use: {xansydukti}. x3 can also specify the property or structure of interest that makes x1 chiral, as well as how handedness x2 is defined and relative to what. Chirality x2 is true when x1 is confined to space/dimensions/conditions x4, under a fixed standard of definition x3. xanto gismu x_1 is an elephant of species/breed x_2. See also {mabru}, {barda}. xarci gismu -xac- -xa'i- x_1 is a weapon/arms for use against x_2 by x_3. Gun/cannon (= {celxa'i}). See also {jenmi}, {sonci}, {catra}. xarju gismu -xaj- x_1 is a pig/hog/swine/[boar] [pork/ham/bacon-producer] of species/breed x_2. Sow (= {fetxarju}), boar (= {nakyxarju}), pork (= {xajre'u}), piglet (= {citxarju}). See also {mabru}, {cange}. xarnu gismu x_1 is stubborn/willfully opposing/resisting x_2 about x_3 (event/state). x_2 may be a person, a state or condition, or a force; the essence is willful resistance. See also {tinsa}, {pante}, {bapli}, {fapro}. xasli gismu x_1 is a donkey/jackass of species/breed x_2. See also {xirma}, {kumte}. xasne gismu x_1 is a/the sweat/perspiration from body x_2, excreted by gland(s)/organs x_3. See also {pinca}, {vikmi}, {cigla}. xatra gismu -xa'a- x_1 is a letter/missive/[note] to intended audience x_2 from author/originator x_3 with content x_4. (cf. {notci}, which has places in a different order; the emphasis in xatra is on the communication between author and recipient, and not the content, which in a letter may not easily be categorized to a 'subject'; {ciska}, {mrilu}, {papri}) xatsi gismu -xat- x_1 is 10^{-18} of x_2 in dimension/aspect x_3 (default is units). See also {grake}, {mitre}, {snidu}, {stero}, {delno}, {molro}, {kelvo}, {xampo}, {gradu}, {litce}, {merli}, {centi}, {decti}, {dekto}, {femti}, {gigdo}, {gocti}, {gotro}, {kilto}, {megdo}, {mikri}, {milti}, {nanvi}, {petso}, {picti}, {terto}, {xecto}, {xexso}, {zepti}, {zetro}. xazdo gismu -xaz- -zdo- x_1 reflects Asiatic culture/nationality/geography in aspect x_2. See also {polno}, {friko}, {jungo}, {rusko}, {ropno}. xebni gismu -xen- -xei- x_1 hates/despises x_2 (object/abstraction); x_1 is full of hate for x_2; x_2 is odious to x_1. x_1 is hateful (one sense); x_2 is hateful (different sense). See also {djica}, {nitcu}, {rigni}, {prami}, {nelci}. xebro gismu -xeb- -bro- x_1 reflects Hebrew/Jewish/Israeli culture/nationality/language in aspect x_2. See also {filso}. xecto gismu -xet- -cto- x_1 is a hundred [100; 10^2] of x_2 in dimension/aspect x_3 (default is units). Cf. {grake}, {mitre}, {snidu}, {stero}, {delno}, {molro}, {kelvo}, {xampo}, {gradu}, {litce}, {merli}, {centi}, {decti}, {dekto}, {femti}, {gigdo}, {gocti}, {gotro}, {kilto}, {megdo}, {mikri}, {milti}, {nanvi}, {petso}, {picti}, {terto}, {xatsi}, {xexso}, {zepti}, {zetro}. xedja gismu -xej- -xe'a- x_1 is a/the jaw [body-part] of x_2. See also {stedu}. xekri gismu -xek- -xe'i- x_1 is black/extremely dark-colored [color adjective]. See also {blabi}, {grusi}, {manku}, {skari}, {xekri}, {kandi}, {carmi}, {blanu}, {bunre}, {cicna}, {crino}, {narju}, {nukni}, {pelxu}, {xunre}, {zirpu}. xelso gismu -xes- x_1 reflects Greek/Hellenic culture/nationality/language in aspect x_2. See also {latmo}, {ropno}. xendo gismu -xed- -xe'o- x_1 (person) is kind to x_2 in actions/behavior x_3. See also {cinmo}, {kecti}, {pendo}, {kusru}. xenru gismu -xer- -xe'u- x_1 regrets/rues (abstraction) x_2; x_1 is regretful/rueful/sorry/[remorseful] about x_2. Also: x_1 feels remorse about x_2 (= {zugyxe'u}). (cf. cmavo list {u'u}, {zungi}) xexso gismu -xex- x_1 is 10^18 of x_2 in dimension/aspect x_3 (default is units). Cf. {grake}, {mitre}, {snidu}, {stero}, {delno}, {molro}, {kelvo}, {xampo}, {gradu}. {litce}, {merli}, {centi}, {decti}, {dekto}, {femti}, {gigdo}, {gocti}, {gotro}, {kilto}, {megdo}, {mikri}, {milti}, {nanvi}, {petso}, {picti}, {terto}, {xatsi}, {xecto}, {zepti}, {zetro}. xigzo experimental gismu x_1 pertains/is related to/reflects the 'Higgs' mechanism in manner/with properties/in state/with realization x_2, coupling to x_3 in manner/with strength x_4 The quality of being in the antiparticle/particle realization (for arbitrarily chosen realization being labelled "particle") can be specified in x2. Neither the gismu nor the definition is intended to be other than neutral with respect to those who have contributed significantly in investigations concerning this aspect of nature. Proposed short rafsi: -xig-. See also: {jikfi},{tsaba}, {dicma}, {vubla}, {grava}, {kantu}, {kantrbocuni}. xindo gismu -xin- x_1 reflects Hindi language/culture/religion in aspect x_2. Defaults to not include Urdu; Indian (Bharat) nationality may be implied (when constrained by {xingu'e}). See also {srito}, {xurdo}, {bengo}. xinmo gismu -xim- x_1 is a quantity of ink of color/pigment x_2 used by writing device x_3. See also {penbi}. xirma gismu -xir- -xi'a- x_1 is a horse/equine/[colt/mare/stallion/pony] of species/breed x_2. (adjective:) x_1 is equine/equestrian. See also {sufti}, {xasli}, {kumte}. xislu gismu -xil- -xi'u- x_1 is a wheel [tool] of device/vehicle x_2, made of materials/having properties x_3. See also {carce}, {karce}, {pulni}, {tutci}. xispo gismu -xip- x_1 reflects Hispano-American culture/nationalities in aspect x_2. Refers to Spanish-speaking Latin-American countries, not Brazil/Guyana. See also {merko}, {mexno}, {spano}, {ketco}, {bemro}, {gento}. xlali gismu -xla- x_1 is bad for x_2 by standard x_3; x_1 is poor/unacceptable to x_2. Be careful to distinguish between a bad/unacceptable event, and a bad/unacceptable agent: x_1 does poorly (= lenu ko'a gasnu cu xlali and not normally ko'a {xlali}). See also {palci}, {mabla}, {xamgu}, {betri}. xlura gismu -xlu- x_1 (agent) influences/lures/tempts x_2 into action/state x_3 by influence/threat/lure x_4. Also impresses; x_4 is alluring (= {trivelxlu} for place reordering); x_3 may be an achieved action/state, or an attempt to perform an action/enter a state). (x_3 and x_4 are normally events or states); See also {djica}, {mukti}, {trina}, {jitro}, {sazri}, {tcica}, {xance}, {stidi}, {kajde}, {maksi}. xorbo experimental gismu x_1 pertains to Xorban language/culture in aspect x_2 xorlo experimental gismu x_1 reflects/relates to/pertains to xorlo (Lojbanic) grammatical standards in manner/aspect x_2, specific to version x_3 (contextless default: the most recent version that has been officially accepted by the Lojban language's governing body (presently, the BPFK)) Since the word is already used in Lojban (especially in meta contexts), it might as well get an official definition/entry; besides, how confusing would it be to come across a word that either is or gismu-conflicts with "xorlo" but which does not mean it? Additionally, actually having this word be part of the Lojban dictionary will allow for its free use within Lojban text and it can be coupled with version specifiers for text (per various proposals). This word might be generalizable to any gadri-specific (proposed) grammar systems for Lojban, rather than Xorlo (as currently understood, or future versions thereof) specifically. See also: {cukre}. xotli gismu -xol- -xoi- x_1 is a hotel/inn/hostel at location x_2 operated by x_3. See also {barja}, {gusta}. xrabo gismu -rab- x_1 reflects Arabic-speaking culture/nationality in aspect x_2. See also {sadjo}, {semto}, {lubno}, {rakso}, {sirxo}. xrani gismu -xai- x_1 (event) injures/harms/damages victim x_2 in property x_3 (ka) resulting in injury x_4 (state). Also hurts. See also {cortu}, {daspo}, {spofu}, {katna}, {porpi}. xriso gismu -xis- -xi'o- x_1 pertains to the Christian religion/culture/nationality in aspect x_2. See also {jegvo}, {lijda}. xrotu experimental gismu x_1 is affectionate with x_2 Rafsi -xro-. Refers to the sort of affection that's common between relatives and friends as well as between sexual partners. x_1 and x_2 are symmetrical. See also {gletu}, {glotu}. xruba gismu -xub- x_1 is a quantity of buckwheat/rhubarb/sorrel grass of species/strain x_2. See also {spati}. xruki gismu -xuk- x_1 is a turkey [food/bird] of species/breed x_2. See also {cipni}. xrula gismu -rul- x_1 is a/the flower/blossom/bloom [body-part] of plant/species x_2; (adjective:) x_1 is floral. See also {spati}. xruti gismu -xru- x_1 (agent) returns x_2 to origin/earlier state x_3 from x_4; x_1 moves/gives x_2 back to x_3 from x_4. x_2 goes back/reverts/Retreats. to x_3 (= {se'ixru} for agent self-returning to a previous location/situation: renumber places in the lujvo); (x_3 may be a location or a person or an event/situation; the latter may also be expressed with {krefu} or {rapli} and a causative like {rinka}/{rikygau}). See also {benji}, {krefu}, {rapli}, {rinka}. xukmi gismu -xum- -xu'i- x_1 is an instance of substance/chemical/drug x_2 (individual or mass) with purity x_3. See also {curve}, {cidro}, {marna}, {nimre}. xulta experimental gismu x_1 is beyond/beside/abstract/meta (older sense) to x_2 so as to be an abstraction thereof/external thereto, being so beyond/abstract in property/aspect x_3, and having features x_4, governed by/considered in system/considerations/epistemology/theory x_5; x1 is conceptually beyond/external to/higher up than x_2 (in, for example, existential or consideration precedence) x1 need not be an abstraction *of* x2, but must be abstract *to* it. The word "metaphysics" could be translated with/using this word. All meta things (in the sense of {cmeta}) are necessarily xulta, but the converse is not true; may also include all things that are {sucta}. This word is different from {sucta} in that no concept or properties need to be generalized/simplified/idealized/abstracted from x2 in order to produce x1 (by some rules); x1 is just an object/concept/system/etc. that exists beyond/external to x2 (in some "higher plane", so to speak). Do not confuse with: {xutla}. Proposed short rafsi: -xut-. See also: {cmeta}, {sucta}. xunre gismu -xun- -xu'e- x_1 is red/crimson/ruddy [color adjective]. See also {skari}, {blabi}, {xekri}, {kandi}, {carmi}, {nukni}, {narju}, {rozgu}, {zirpu}. xurdo gismu -xur- -xu'o- x_1 reflects Urdu language/culture/nationality in aspect x_2. See also {kisto}, {srito}, {xindo}. xusra gismu -xus- -xu'a- x_1 (agent) asserts/claims/declares x_2 (du'u) is true [can be used for epistemology of authority]. Also: x_1 states/says that/affirms/purports to know that x_2. (cf. {natfe} which is propositional and non-agentive, {nupre}) xutla gismu -xul- x_1 is smooth/even/[soft/silky] in texture/regularity. See also {plita}, {rufsu}, {tengu}, {dikni}, {pinta}, {sakli}, {spali}. zabna gismu -zan- -za'a- x_1 is favorable/great/superb/fabulous/dandy/outstanding/swell/admirable/nice/commendable/delightful/desirable/enjoyable/laudable/likable/lovable/wonderful/praiseworthy/high-quality/cool in property x_2 by standard x_3; x_1 rocks in aspect x_2 according to x_3 See also {mabla}, {xamgu}, {funca}, {vrude}, {banli}. zajba gismu -zaj- x_1 is a gymnast at/performs gymnastics feat x_2. See also {sluji}, {dansu}. zalvi gismu -zal- x_1 [individual or mass of hard surfaces] grinds/pulverizes/crushes x_2 into powder x_3. May need mosra tanru. See also {daspo}, {purmo}, {marxa}, {pulce}, {canre}, {molki}. zanru gismu -zar- -zau- x_1 approves of/gives favor to plan/action x_2 (object/event). See also cmavo list {zau}, {natfe}. zarci gismu -zac- -zai- x_1 is a market/store/exchange/shop(s) selling/trading (for) x_2, operated by/with participants x_3. Also: mall, marketplace, shopping center, cooperative, bazaar, trading post, mart; the concept is the function of selling/exchanging coupled with a location, and is more oriented to the larger concept of marketplace than the stalls/shops that comprise it, though it does not exclude the latter individual shops (= {zaisle}); x_3 may include both owners/proprietors and customers in some markets, but in most contexts refers only to the operators. See also {vecnu}, {canja}, {dinju}, {banxa}. zargu gismu -zag- -za'u- x_1 is a/the buttock(s)/arse/rear/seat [body-part] of x_2; [metaphor: rounded surface, support]. Also ass, behind, butt. See also {ganxo}, {mabla}. zasni gismu -zas- x_1 is temporary/not permanent/expected to change in property x_2 (ka) by standard/expectant x_3. Also transient. See also {vitno}, {stodi}, {cenba}, {galfi}, {binxo}, {stika}, {stali}, {tcini}, {vitke}. zasti gismu -zat- -za'i- x_1 exists/is real/actual/reality for x_2 under metaphysics x_3. Words usable for epistemology typically have a du'u place. x_1 is physical (one sense). See also {fatci}, {xanri}. zbabu gismu -bab- x_1 is a quantity of/contains/is made of soap from source x_2 of composition including x_3. See also {lumci}, {fonmo}. zbani gismu x_1 is a bay in/of coast/shoreline x_2. See also {lalxu}, {xamsi}. zbasu gismu -zba- x_1 makes/assembles/builds/manufactures/creates x_2 out of materials/parts/components x_3. Should not be used to express causation. Cf. {cupra}, {larcu}, {rutni}, {finti}, {gundi}. zbepi gismu -zbe- x_1 is a pedestal/base/stand/pallet supporting x_2 (object/event), of materials/properties x_3. Pallet (= {lafyzbe}). See also {jamfu}, {jicmu}, {jubme}, {tuple}, {ckana}, {cpana}, {loldi}, {sanli}. zdani gismu -zda- x_1 is a nest/house/lair/den/[home] of/for x_2. Home (= {tercnizda}), house (constructed building) (= {zdadi'u}). See also {dinju}, {ginka}, {kumfa}, se {xabju}. zdile gismu -zdi- x_1 (abstract) is amusing/entertaining to x_2 in property/aspect x_3; x_3 is what amuses x_2 about x_1. Also: x_1 occupies x_2 pleasantly; x_1 is fun for x_2; x_2 is amused by x_1; x_2 has fun (at) doing x_1; x_1 is an amusement/entertainment/game for x_2. See also {cinri}, {panka}, {xajmi} for funny, {kelci}. zekri gismu -zer- -zei- x_1 (event/state) is a punishable crime/[taboo/sin] to people/culture/judges/jury x_2. Taboo (= {kluzei}, {cacyzei}); sin (= {madzei}, {jdamadzei}); heresy (= {jdazei}). See also {flalu}, {sfasa}, {zungi}, {palci}, {lijda}, {pajni}, {javni}, {tcaci}, {marde}, {pulji}, {tinbe}. zenba gismu -zen- -ze'a- x_1 (experiencer) increases/is incremented/augmented in property/quantity x_2 by amount x_3. See also {jdika}, {zmadu}, {banro}, {jmina}. zepti gismu -zep- x_1 is 10^{-21} of x_2 in dimension/aspect x_3 (default is units). (cf. {grake}, {mitre}, {snidu}, {stero}, {delno}, {molro}, {kelvo}, {xampo}, {gradu}, {litce}, {merli}, {centi}, {decti}, {dekto}, {femti}, {gigdo}, {gocti}, {gotro}, {kilto}, {megdo}, {mikri}, {milti}, {nanvi}, {petso}, {picti}, {terto}, {xatsi}, {xecto}, {xexso}, {zetro}) zetro gismu -zet- x_1 is 10^21 of x_2 in dimension/aspect x_3 (default is units). Cf. {grake}, {mitre}, {snidu}, {stero}, {delno}, {molro}, {kelvo}, {xampo}, {gradu}, {litce}, {merli}, {centi}, {decti}, {dekto}, {femti}, {gigdo}, {gocti}, {gotro}, {kilto}, {megdo}, {mikri}, {milti}, {nanvi}, {petso}, {picti}, {terto}, {xatsi}, {xecto}, {xexso}, {zepti}. zevla experimental gismu v_1 is a zi'evla-form word meaning v_2 (in Lojban); v_1 is morphologically a zi'evla Synonymous to {zi'evla} zgadi experimental gismu x_1 (abstraction) should/(of right) ought to be true/happening under conditions/in the case of x_2 being true/happening, as believed by/by standard/under consideration of x_3. If the world were proper/correct/just/ruled perfectly and strictly according to x_3 and if x_2 were true, then x_1 would be true as well. If the world were proper/correct/just according to x_3 and if x_2 were true, then x_1 would be true as well. Moral judgment goes in x3. x3 can also be assumed by expectation under hypothesized laws of physics, by the true situation of the world, etc. Synonymous with {cadga}. zgana gismu -zga- x_1 observes/[notices]/watches/beholds x_2 using senses/means x_3 under conditions x_4. Behold/watch/gaze (= {vi'azga}); guard/watchman/sentinel (= {zgaku'i}, {jdeku'i}). See also cmavo list {ga'a}, {ganse}, {viska}, {catlu}, {tirna}, {pencu}, {sumne}, {kurji}, {canci}, {catlu}, {jarco}, {lanli}, {pinka}, {simlu}. zgike gismu -zgi- -gi'e- x_1 is music performed/produced by x_2 (event). x_2 event may be person playing instrument, singing, musical source operating/vibrating, etc.; instrument (= {zgica'a}); play an instrument (= {zgica'apli}, {zgiterca'a}, {selzgigau}, {selzgizu'e}); song (= {sagzgi}, {selsa'a}); voice, as used musically (= {zgivo'a}); composed music (= {finzgi}). See also {damri}, {dansu}, {flani}, {janbe}, {jgita}, {pipno}, {rilti}, {tabra}, {tonga}, {xagri}, {siclu}. zifre gismu -zif- -zi'e- x_1 is free/at liberty to do/be x_2 (event/state) under conditions x_3. Also unrestricted, unfettered, unconstrained; (adjective:) independent; (adverb:) willingly, voluntarily, freely, may, optionally; (potential:) x_1 voluntarily does x_2. See also {pinfu}, {rinju}, {bilga}, {curmi}, {kakne}, {frili}. zinki gismu -zin- -zi'i- x_1 is a quantity of/contains/is made of zinc (Zn); [metaphor: hard metal]. See also {jinme}. zirpu gismu -zir- -zi'u- x_1 is purple/violet [color adjective]. See also {skari}, {blabi}, {xekri}, {kandi}, {carmi}, {nukni}, {blanu}, {xunre}. zivle gismu -ziv- -vle- x_1 (agent) invests resources x_2 in investment x_3 expecting return/profit x_4 (object(s)/event). [also ties up/Risks/gambles. x_1 is an investor; x_2 are invested assets of x_1; bond (= {jertervle})]; See also {prali}, {canja}, {jbera}, {dejni}, {ponse}. zmadu gismu -zma- -mau- x_1 exceeds/is more than x_2 in property/quantity x_3 (ka/ni) by amount/excess x_4. Also positive (= {nonmau}). See also cmavo list {mau}, {mleca}, {zenba}, {jmina}, {bancu}, {dukse}, {traji}. zmiku gismu -zmi- x_1 is automatic in function x_2 under conditions x_3. See also {macnu}. zucna experimental gismu x_1 is counterclockwise/left-turn-direction of[/to] x_2 along/following track x_3 [path] in frame of reference x_4 (where the axis is within the region defined by the track as the boundary, as viewed from and defined by view(er) x_4; see notes); x_1 is locally to the left of x_2, according to x_4, constrained along x_3; x_1 is along a left turn from x_2 along path x_3, as viewed in frame x_4. Angular/curling direction: counterclockwise. The orientation of the path determines x4 but does not factor into consideration for x3. Further glosses: counterclockwise, locally leftward, left-turning (with no bulk translation) in a way that would be characterized as "positive" by the right-hand rule (aligned with and in the direction of a basis vector, at least for a given component). x1 is right-handedly/counterclockwise(ly) oriented relative to x2 on/along x3 in frame of reference x4 x1 is right-handed (one sense) from x2 [more accurately: moving from x2 to x1 requires a(n imaginary) motion that is right-handed along x3 as seen in frame/orientation/perspective x4]. x1 is to the path-following left of x2 (where the path is connected; as such, x1 is also be to the path-following right of x2, although there is an implication that the former is the smaller (or equal-length) path). See also: {dutso}, {za'ei} (vectorial cross product), {zu'au} (modal). Proposed short rafsi: -zuc-, -zu'a-. (If “zn” ever becomes a permissible initial consonant pair, krtisfranks proposes that “-zna-” become a rafsi of this word- it makes {zucna} and {dutso} more parallel in lujvo formation, and he is of the opinion that this word is useful and basic enough to warrant such a prized rafsi assignment; after this addition, the current two rafsi proposals can be done away with, reassigned, maintained, vel sim. as desired by the community at the time. In particular, he recognizes that “-zu’a-” might be confusing as a rafsi for this word while being a modal cmavo for {zunle}; but he does believe that this word deserves a vowel-final short rafsi.) zukte gismu -zuk- -zu'e- x_1 is a volitional entity employing means/taking action x_2 for purpose/goal x_3/to end x_3. Also acting at, undertaking, doing; agentive cause with volition/purpose; also x_3 objective, end. See also cmavo list {zu'e}, {bapli}, {gunka}, {jalge}, {krinu}, {mukti}, {rinka}, {snuti}, {gasnu}, {fasnu}, {minji}, {prenu}, {ciksi}, {jibri}, {pilno}, {pluta}, {tadji}, {tutci}. zumri gismu -zmu- x_1 is a quantity of maize/corn [grain] of species/strain x_2. See also {gurni}. zungi gismu -zug- x_1 feels guilt/remorse about x_2 (abstraction). (cf. cmavo list {u'u}, {cinmo}, {xenru}, {zekri}) zunle gismu -zul- x_1 is to the left/left-hand side of x_2 which faces/in-frame-of-reference x_3. Also x_3 is the standard of orientation for x_2. See also cmavo list {zu'a}, {pritu}, {mlana}, {crane}, {trixe}, {farna}. zunti gismu -zun- -zu'i- x_1 (evt./state) interferes with/hinders/disrupts x_2 (evt./state/process) due to quality x_3 (ka). Also blocks, obstructs, baffles; not necessarily forcing cessation. See also {fanta}, {dicra}, {fliba}, {fanza}, {raktu}, {klina}, {bandu}, {cfipu}, {ganlo}. zutse gismu -zut- -tse- x_1 sits [assumes sitting position] on surface x_2. See also {stizu}, {cpana}, {vreta}. zvati gismu -zva- x_1 (object/event) is at/attending/present at x_2 (event/location). Atemporal; location equivalent of {cabna}. Refers to a nonce location for an object/activity that is mobile. (cf. especially {stuzi} for an inherent/inalienable location, {jbini}, {nenri}, se {vasru}, {cpana}, {diklo}, {jibni}, {cabna}, {lamji}, {tcini}, {xabju}, {jmive}, {jundi}, {vitke}) zviki experimental gismu x_1 (agent) creates 'hack' x_2 (nu/zu'o/si'o) for system/tool x_3 from inspiration x_4; x_2 is an emergent use/purpose for x_3, unexpected by the original creators or users Contains no positive or negative connotations, can refer both to 'cool/elegant hacks' ({se} {mlezvi}) and 'kludge/ugly hacks' ({se} {feglyzvi}). Hack as in 'gain unauthorized or unexpected access to' = {zvijonse}, 'White-hat' hacking = {vudzvi}/{vudzvijonse}, 'black-hat' hacking = {pacyzvi}/{pacyzvijonse}, 'grey-hat' hacking = {norvudzvi}/{norvudzvijonse}. Proposed rafsi: -zvi-. See {kosmu}, {finti}, {jonse}